Yazid’s (l.a) role in Imam Husain’s (a.s.) martyrdom

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The defenders of the Saqifa system of rulership, which they mistakenly refer as Caliphate, go all out to protect Yazid and absolve him of the crime of killing Imam Husain (a.s.). They point to others like Ubaidullah Ibn Ziyad, Umar Ibn Saad and claim that they are truly responsible for killing Imam Husain (a.s.).

The likes of Ghazzali, Ibn Taymiyya, Qazi Ibn Arabi (not to be confused with Muhiyyuddeen Ibn Arabi, another Nasibi), belong to a small bunch of obstinate Muslim ‘scholars’ who defend Yazid by redeeming him of killing Imam Husain (a.s.). Likewise, they also clear him of his other crimes – plundering Medina (Harra) and attacking the Kaaba.


Yazid killed Imam Husain (a.s.)

There are three types of proofs:

  1. The first: Those that indicate that Yazid ordered Ibn Ziyad and others to kill Imam Husain (a.s.). This includes statements that explicitly mention him as the perpetrator.
  2. The second: Those that indicate his approval of the killing of Imam Husain (a.s.).
  3. The third: His actions that reflect his delight in what happened to Imam Husain (a.s.), his family, and his companions, may Allah bless them.

First: Yazid’s orders to kill Imam Husain, (a.s.)

Yazid Ibn Muawiya ordered the killing of the Master of Martyrs – Imam Husain (a.s.) and his companions, as shown in the following texts:

  1. Ibn Ziyad said to Misafer Ibn Sharih al-Yashkari:
    As for killing Husain, he (Yazid) gestured to me to either kill him or be killed, so I chose to kill him…[1].
  2. Ibn Ziyad wrote to Imam Husain (a.s.):
    I have been informed of your arrival in Karbala, and Yazid, wrote to me not to rest in comfort, nor taste bread until I join you with Allah (kill)…[2].
  3. Yaqubi records – Yazid wrote to Ibn Ziyad: I have received word that the people of Kufa have written to Husain (a.s.) about their reception of him, and that he has left Mecca heading towards them. Your city has been afflicted by him, among other cities, and your days have been counted among the days. Kill him, otherwise you will return to your lineage and lineage of your father (i.e. ignominy). Beware of missing this opportunity…[3].
  4. Indeed, Yazid, directed Amr Ibn Saeed Ibn al-Aas to suppress the rebellion and gave him authority over the matter of suppressing Imam Husain, (a.s.), wherever he was found [4].
  5. Yazid wrote to Walid Ibn Utba:
    Take Husain and Abdullah Ibn Umar, Abdul Rahman Ibn Abu Bakr and Abdullah Ibn Zubair, and enforce the allegiance with strictness. Whoever refuses, strike his neck and send me his head…” [5].
  6. According to Yaqubi: When my letter reaches you, summon Husain Ibn Ali and Abdullah Ibn Zubair. Take their allegiance. If they refuse, strike their necks and send me their heads. Take allegiance from the people. If anyone refuses, execute the judgment upon him, including Husain Ibn Ali and Abdullah Ibn Zubair. Peace.” [6].
  7. Yazid wrote to his representative in Medina:
    Hasten in responding to me and clearly inform me in your letter about everyone who is in obedience to me or has deviated from it, and let the letter include the head of Husain Ibn Ali. [7]
  8. In another report, Walid Ibn Utba informed Yazid about Imam Husain, (a.s.), and Ibn Zubair (refraining from allegiance). This made Yazid angry and he wrote to him:
    When my letter reaches you, take the allegiance again from the people of Medina with emphasis. Leave Abdullah Ibn Zubair, for he will not escape us and will never be safe from us as long as he lives. Include the head of Husain Ibn Ali in your response to me. If you do that, you will have earned my full support, and I will grant you a generous reward…” [8].
  9. Yazid wrote to Ibn Abbas and to those in Mecca and Medina from the Quraish verses that indicate his intention to kill Imam Husain (a.s.) [9].
  10. Ibn Asakir records: Yazid got news of Husain’s departure and wrote to Ubaidullah Ibn Ziyad, who was his governor in Iraq, commanding him to combat Husain and bring him to him if he was captured… [10].
  11. According to another text from Ibn Athim:
    Ibn Ziyad said to the people of Kufa – Yazid Ibn Muawiya wrote to me with four thousand dinars and two hundred thousand dirhams. Distribute them among yourselves and prepare for battle against his enemy, Husain Ibn Ali. Listen to him and obey.'” [11].
  12. Likewise its recorded in another text: “And he (Yazid) increased your sustenance by one hundred percent.” [12].
  13. Suyuti mentioned: “Yazid wrote to his governor in Iraq, Ubaidullah Ibn Ziyad, commanding him to fight against him…” [13].
  14. The command to fight, does it imply anything other than exerting efforts to kill the opposing party, to strive to take his life or capture him?
  15. When the blessed head of Imam Husain (a.s.), was placed before Yazid, he would stroke its beard with a staff and say:
    Our people refused to be just with us, so I administered justice, through stabs that drip our blood in our faith. A group of esteemed men broke away from us, they were the evilest and the most unjust towards us… [14].
  16. Alusi mentioned from Ibn al-Wardi’s history and Kitab al-Wafi bi al-Wafiyyat:
    When the women and children of Husain (a.s.), as well as the heads on spears, reached Yazid, who was then close to the valley of Giron, he recited verses which show his pleasure on seeing the heads raised atop spears and in this way he settled scores with Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.)[15].
  17. Alusi’s view on Yazid’s verses: This is blatant disbelief. If it’s authentic, then he has disbelieved with it. And a similar instance is the poem that Ibn Zuba’ra recited before his conversion to Islam: (How I wish my elders were present at Badr), the verses continue. [16].
  18. Ghazali mentioned that Yazid had written to Ibn Ziyad, urging him to kill Husain… [17].
  19. Yazid also recited verses mocking the remains of Imam Husain, (a.s.), with a staff that showed how his elders would have rejoiced at seeing their humiliation at Badr being avenged by Yazid. And that there was neither news nor revelation but Bani Hashim toyed with rulership. [18]. In these verses is a clear confession: that he is the one taking responsibility for killing Imam Husain (a.s.) with much pride.
  20. Yazid had entrusted Amr Ibn Saeed Ashdaq to either engage in combat with Imam or, if he failed to do so, to assassinate him. Ashdaq advanced with a sizeable force to Mecca. When the Imam learned of this, he left the city… [19].

Confrontation with Yazid’s Crime
There are numerous texts that depict people confronting Yazid accusing him of being the killer of Imam Husain, (a.s.), without him denying it or shifting the blame onto others. Among these texts are:

  1. What Ibn Abbas wrote to Yazid, in a letter that included:
    You asked me to urge people to join you and to deter them from supporting Ibn Zubair, but no, I will not, not even for immense wealth. You are the one who killed Husain Ibn Ali…[20].
  2. Ibn Abbas added: I don’t forget things, I haven’t forgotten that you killed Husain (a.s.), along with the youth of Banu Hashim…and further on: I have not forgotten what took place, for you are the one who relentlessly pursued the killing of Husain Ibn Ali (a.s.). You violated the sanctity from the sanctity of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.a.) to the sanctity of Allah, and incited men against him for assassination…
  3. Continuing: You incited men against him to fight him (a.s.)…[21] Until he concluded: Then, you wrote to Ibn Marjanah (Ibn Ziyad), commanding him to confront Husain (a.s.) with men, urging him to engage with him, and not to give him respite. You pressed him until he kills Husain and those with him from Banu Hashim… [22]
  4. Yazid’s son, Muawiya Ibn Yazid, affirmed in his inaugural speech upon assuming the caliphate from his father Yazid, that his father was indeed the murderer. His speech is recorded thus:
    …Certainly, one of the greatest matters upon us is our knowledge of his (Husain’s) tragic death, his terrible fate. He was killed, the family of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.a.) was violated, the sanctity was violated, and the Kaaba was desecrated…” [23]
  5. Yazid said to Imam Sajjad (a.s.), when he entered in his presence:
    Are you the son of the one whom Allah killed?
    Imam Sajjad (a.s.) replied: I am Ali, the son of the one whom you killed. Then Imam (a.s.) recited the verse: ‘And whoever kills a believer intentionally, his recompense is Hell…’ (Surah Furqan (25):68) [24] [25]
  6. Imam Sajjad (a.s.) also said to him: O Yazid, you are content with our blood… [26]
  7. Ibn Athim narrated that Imam Sajjad, (a.s.), said to Yazid:
    If you knew what you have done and what atrocities you have committed against my father, my family, my brother, and my kin, then you would have fled to the mountains, spread ashes on yourself, and invoked doom and destruction. The head of Husain Ibn Fatimah and the son of Ali would have been raised on the gate of the city of Medina. He is a trust of Allah among you…” [27]
  8. Imam Sajjad, (a.s.) addressing Yazid in his famous sermon in Damascus, said: Is Muhammad your grandfather or your ancestor? If you claim he is your grandfather, then you have lied and disbelieved… And if you claim he is your ancestor, then why did you kill his progeny?” [28]
  9. Lady Zainab, peace be upon her, said to Yazid in her well-known sermon: …You have aggravated the wound, and uprooted nobility, by shedding the blood of the progeny of Muhammad and the stars of the earth from the family of Abdul Muttalib. [29]

Second: Approval of Yazid for the Killing of Imam Husain (a.s.)
Condemnation by Ahle Tasannun Scholars of Yazid

  1. Many statements from Sunni scholars address this issue. For instance, Jahiz stated the legitimacy of cursing Yazid after mentioning his role in the killing of Imam Husain (a.s.) and other events said:
    So the wrongdoer is cursed, and whoever prohibits cursing the cursed one is cursed… [30]
  2. The condemnation of Yazid’s actions, especially in relation to the killing of Imam Husain (a.s.) transcends sectarian boundaries and is acknowledged by various scholars and thinkers from different perspectives. This condemnation underscores the gravity of the events and their impact on Islamic history.
  3. Jahiz also stated that scholars unanimously agreed that anyone who intentionally kills a believer, whether acting on their own accord or by interpretation, is cursed. He added that if the killer is an oppressive ruler or a disobedient leader, they are not exempt from being cursed, removed from authority, banished, or criticized. [31]
  4. The stance against Yazid’s actions and the curse associated with them is not limited to a particular Islamic school of thought. Scholars from various backgrounds, including Al-Burhan Al-Halabi, Ali Ibn Muhammad Khayaharasi, Zahabi, and Sheikh Muhammad Abdu, have expressed similar condemnations. [33]
  5. Ahmad Ibn Hanbal ruled that Yazid deserved to be cursed. [34]
  6. Umar Ibn Abdul Aziz, who referred to Yazid as Amirul Momineen ordered him to be lashed twenty times. [35]
  7. Suyuti invoked Allah’s curse upon Yazid, his killer Ibn Ziyad, and included Yazid among those cursed. [36]
  8. When Ibn Jawzi was asked about cursing Yazid, he replied that Ahmad Ibn Hanbal permitted it. He also stated that they did not hold any love for him due to what he did to the grandson of the Prophet and how he treated the family of the Prophet while taking them captive to the Levant. [37]
  9. Review the statements of Alusi regarding what Yazid did to the progeny of the Prophet and his family. It is a commendable discourse. It has been reported from Barzinji in Al-Ishā’ah, Abi Ya’la, Ibn al-Jawzi, Taftazani, and Suyuti, the permissibility of cursing Yazid. [38]
  10. Zahabi said: He was a severe tyrant, indulging in intoxicants and engaging in vice. He initiated his rule with the killing of Husain (a.s.) and sealed it with the incident of Harra. [39]
  11. Ibn Khaldun states about Yazid’s killing of Imam Husain, (a.s.):
    Indeed, his killing is one of his confirmed acts of immorality, and Husain is a martyr in it. [40]

This is a mere glimpse of the extensive discussion, and the free individual can understand the implication. His biography bears witness to this.

Third: Yazid’s actions that reflect his delight in what happened to Imam Husain (a.s.), his family, his companions

Yazid himself openly expressed his satisfaction and delight in the killing of Imam Husain (a.s.). He said to Noman Ibn Bashir:
Praise be to Allah who killed Husain. [41]

Furthermore, his actions, may he be cursed, indicate this satisfaction and delight. Both Suyuti and Ibn Jarir mentioned that when Hussain was killed, Yazid secretly rejoiced in his death. He was pleased with the state of Ibn Ziyad at that time and he even praised and honored him. Yazid concealed what he did. However, later he regretted his actions. Muslims despised him, and people loathed him. Footnote [42]

Jahiz summarized it by saying:

The reprehensible acts committed by Yazid, such as killing Husain, taking the Prophet’s daughters as captives, striking Hussain’s body with a stick, terrorizing the people of Medina, and damaging the Kaaba, indicate cruelty, harshness, cunning, ill intentions, animosity, hypocrisy, and deviation from faith. [43]

Al-Taftazani stated:
The truth is that Yazid’s satisfaction with killing Hussain and his delight in it, along with the humiliation of the Prophet’s household—though the details might vary—is well established. We don’t hesitate to declare his curse, as well as the curse on his supporters and allies.” [44]

Sibt al-Jawzi commented:
Al-Ghazzali claimed that Husain’s killing was a mistake. How can that be? Husain’s situation does not warrant such an assumption, considering the fighting that occurred, the correspondence between Yazid and Ibn Ziyad regarding Husain, Yazid’s encouragement to kill him, preventing him from accessing water, killing him of thirst, carrying his and his family’s heads on the backs of camels, and striking his body with a stick. [17]

Ibn Jawzi said about the allegiance given to Yazid:
Numerous actions on his part make each one sufficient reason for voiding that contract: sacking Medina, launching projectiles at the Kaaba, killing Husain and his family, striking his body with a stick, and carrying his head on a wooden plank. [45]

Yazid said to Imam Sajjad (a.s.):
What do you think about Allah’s treatment of your father, O Ali Ibn Husain? I consulted those present regarding his fate, and they advised me to kill him. [46]. He fell silent.

Lady Zainab (s.a.) confronted Yazid with severe reproach for this act. Footnote [47]

Yazid also said to Imam Sajjad (a.s.), “Whatever affliction befell you is the consequence of your own deeds.” Footnote [48.]

Yazid further said to Imam Sajjad (a.s.): Your father and grandfather aimed to become rulers. Praise be to Allah, who humiliated and spilled their blood.” [49]

Yazid called for the head of Imam Husain (a.s.), and he began striking / jabbing the throat of Imam Husain (a.s.) with a stick in his hand. [50] ]Yazid said: You have met your end due to your rebellion, O Husain. [51[.

Prizes Granted by Yazid to Ibn Ziyad

Upon Ibn Ziyad’s killing of Imam Husain (a.s.), Yazid rewarded him with a prize of one million dirhams. [52.]

Yazid said to Salam Ibn Ziyad, the brother of Ubaidullah Ibn Ziyad, when he presented himself after the killing of Imam Husain (a.s.):
Your love, O sons of Ziyad, for the family of Abu Sufyan has become obligatory. [53.]

Yazid, cursed be him, wrote to Ibn Ziyad after the killing of Imam Husain (a.s.):
After all, you have ascended to heights that are beyond measure, as the poets have said:
You have ascended, surpassed the clouds, and above them, you have nothing but a seat in the sun’s dwelling. May I reward you for what you have done.

When he (Ibn Ziyad) arrived to meet Yazid, Yazid greeted him warmly, kissed his forehead, seated him on his royal throne, and introduced him to his wives.

He rewarded him with one million dirhams, and the same amount to Umar Ibn Saad. He also granted Umar Ibn Saad the revenue of Iraq for a year. [54.]

Moreover, when the news of Imam Husain’s (a.s.) killing reached him, and he was in his green garden, he performed a loud Takbir (Allahu Akbar). [55.]

And when the captives reached Sham (Damascus), Yazid gathered those present from the people of Sham, and they entered upon him, and he paraded them with pride. [56.]

And it was mentioned: When he placed the head of Imam Hussain (a.s.), he began to strike its cheeks with a stick, saying:
Our people refused to support us, so I sought support from our adversaries, in whose oaths blood drips. We slaughtered the most noble of our men, who were our support, while they were the most wicked and dark.

Then he hung the noble head at the palace gate for three days. [57.]

In another account: He displayed it in Damascus for three days, then it was placed in the armoury. [58.]

In another account: He displayed it at the door of a mosque in Damascus. [59].

In another account: He displayed it in a mosque in Damascus, in the same place where the head of the prophet Yahya (a.s.) was displayed. [60.]

Then he imprisoned the captives in a cell where they were neither protected from the heat nor the cold. [61.]

It’s narrated that Abdul Malik Ibn Marwan wrote to Hajjaj Ibn Yusuf:
Keep the blood of the Ahle Bait away from me. I have seen the descendants of Harb take their kingdom after killing Husain (a.s.). [62.]

This is his acknowledgment that the killer of Imam Hussain Ibn Ali (a.s.) is Yazid Ibn Muawiya Ibn Abu Sufyan, from the lineage of Harb. He attributed the crime to all of Banu Harb. Their kingdom was taken away due to their heinous act of killing Imam Hussain (a.s.) in this dreadful manner.

It’s possible that he displayed the head in various locations on different days.

If their claims were true, and even if we assume their assertions to be accurate, that Yazid did not order Ibn Ziyad to kill Imam Husain (a.s.), then it should have been expected that he seek revenge from Ibn Ziyad. At the very least, he should have held him accountable and punished him, as well as Umar Ibn Saad, Shimr Ibn Zil Jawshan, and others who participated in the killing of Imam Husain (a.s.), the fragrant flower of the Prophet (a.s.) and the leader of the youths of Paradise.

Furthermore, it was his duty to punish Amr Ibn Saeed Ashdaq, who was ordered by his police chief, Amr Ibn al-Zubayr Ibn al-Awwam, to demolish the houses of Banu Hashim in Medina. Amr carried out the order, destroying every house belonging to them, including the house of Ibn Muti’. He should have at the very least, severed his ties with the services of Ibn Ziyad, Ashdaq, and others.

He should not have allowed the Sufyanis of Damascus to welcome the captives with drums, rejoicing and celebration. How could this be acceptable?! [64.]

After all that has been presented:
What is the meaning behind the attempt of these individuals to absolve Yazid from the actions he committed with his own hands? They claim that he did not order the killing of Imam Hussain (a.s.) and was not pleased with it. Furthermore, they assert that he even tried to prevent the resumption of fighting between the people of Sham (Syria) and the people of Iraq?

For details on other objections raised by the skeptics, refer “Mīzān al-Ḥaqq” (Doubts and Responses), by Sayyid Jafar Murtaza al-ʿĀmilī, Islamic Center for Studies, First Edition, 1431 AH – 2010 AD

  1. Al-Kamil fi al-Tarikh, Vol. 3, p. 324.
  2. Bihar al-Anwar, Vol. 44, p. 383, and Al-Awālim. Imam Husain, p. 243. Al-Futūḥ by Ibn al-A’tham, Vol. 5, p. 85. Manāqib Āl Abī Ṭālib, Vol. 3, p. 248. Maṭālib al-Su’ūl, p. 400. Kashf al-Ghummah, Vol. 2, pp. 257 and 258.
  3. Tārīkh al-Ya’qūbi, Vol. 2, p. 242.
  4. Al-Muntaqab by al-Tartushi, p. 304. About the Killing of Husain by al-Sayyid al-Muqarram, p. 165.
  5. Killing of Husain by al-Khwarazmi, Vol. 1, pp. 178-180. Manāqib Āl Abī Ṭālib, Vol. 4, p. 88. Al-Futūḥ by Ibn al-A’tham, Vol. 5, p. 10.
  6. Tārīkh al-Ya’qūbi, Vol. 2, p. 241.
  7. Al-Amālī by al-Saduq (r.a.), p. 134-135. Imam Husain (a.s.) in Al-Awālim, p. 161. Madina al-Ma’ājiz Vol. 3, p. 486.
  8. Al-Futūḥ by Ibn al-A’tham Vol. 5, p. 18.
  9. Tārīkh Dimashq, Vol. 14, p. 210. Also mentioned in the margins: Baghiyat al-Tālib, Vol. 6, p. 2610. Tahzīb al-Kamāl, Vol. 6, p. 419. Al-Bidāyah wa’l-Nihāyah, Vol. 8, p. 177. Refer also to: Al-Bidāyah wa’l-Nihāyah, Vol. 8, p. 177. Al-Futūḥ by Ibn al-A’tham, Vol. 5, pp. 68-69. Tazkirat al-Khawāṣ, p. 238.
  10. Translation of Imam Husain by Ibn Asākir, p. 302. Tārīkh Dimashq, Vol. 14, p. 213. Also mentioned in the margins: Baqiyat al-Tālib, Vol. 6, p. 2614.
  11. Al-Futūḥ by Ibn al-A’tham, Vol. 5, p. 89.
  12. Al-Akhbār al-Ṭiwāl, p. 253. Bihar al-Anwar, Vol. 44, p. 385. Al-Awālim, Imam Husain p. 236.
  13. Tārīkh al-Khulafā, p. 193. Tārīkh al-Islām by al-Zahabi, Vol. 5, p. 10.
  14. Refer to: Muruj al-Zahab, Vol. 3, p. 61. Al-Akhbār al-Ṭiwāl, p. 261. Al-Futūḥ al-Mujallad al-Thālith, Vol. 5, p. 128. Al-Nujūm al-Zāhirah, Vol. 1, p. 203. Al-Fuṣūl al-Muhimah by Ibn al-Ṣabbāgh, p. 205. Mir’āt al-Jinān by al-Yāfi’ī, Vol. 1, p. 135. Maqātil al-Tālibīyīn, p. 119. Al-Irshād by al-Mufīd, Vol. 2, p. 119. Manāqib Āl Abī Ṭālib, Vol. 4, p. 114. Sīrat A’lām al-Nubalā’, Vol. 3, p. 39.
  15. Rooḥ al-Ma’ānī, Vol. 26, p. 72. Tazkirat al-Khawāṣ, pp. 261 and 262. Minhāj al-Sunnah, Vol. 4, p. 549 and onwards.
  16. Rooḥ al-Ma’ānī, Vol. 26, p. 73.
  17. Tazkirat al-Khawāṣ, p. 63. Refer to: Al-Ṣawā’iq al-Muḥriqah, Vol. 2, p. 631.
  18. Refer to: Al-Bidāyah wa’l-Nihāyah, Vol. 8, p. 187. Manāqib Āl Abī Ṭālib, Vol. 3, p. 114. Al-Futūḥ al-Mujallad al-Thālith, Vol. 5, p. 129. Al-Muntaẓim, Vol. 5, p. 343. Tazkirat al-Khawāṣṣ, pp. 261 and 262. Āthār al-Jāḥiẓ, p. 130. A question about Yazīd, p. 14 and onwards. The sources for this are countless.
  19. Life of Imam Husain Ibn Ali, by al-Qarashi, Vol. 3, p. 46, from Murā’at al-Zamān in the Library of Imam Amir al-Momineen in Najaf, Iraq, p. 67.
  20. Kitāb al-Kithkith: With the repeated Kāf (ك) meaning “earth,” or “fragments of stones.”
  21. Perhaps the correct statement is: “And I don’t know.”
  22. Tārīkh al-Ya’qūbi, Vol. 2, pp. 248, 249, and 250. Refer to: Al-Kāmil fi al-Tarikh, Vol. 4, p. 128. Refer to: Majma’ al-Zawā’id, Vol. 7, p. 252. Al-Mu’jam al-Kabīr, Vol. 10, p. 243.
  23. Al-Ṣawā’iq al-Muḥriqah, Vol. 2, p. 641. Tārīkh al-Ya’qūbi, Vol. 2, p. 254. Yanābi’ al-Mawaddah, Vol. 3, p. 36.
  24. The Holy Quran: Surah Al-Nisa (4), Verse 93, Page 93.
  25. Tazkirat al-Khawāṣ, p. 63, from al-Ghazali.
  26. Maqātil al-Tālibīyīn, p. 120, and (Publications of Al-Haydari Library), p. 80.
  27. Al-Futūḥ by Ibn al-A’tham, Vol. 5, p. 132.
  28. Al-Futūḥ by Ibn al-A’tham, Vol. 5, p. 133, and Killing of Husain by al-Khwarazmi, Vol. 2, p. 242. Bihar al-Anwar, Vol. 45, p. 139. Al-Awālim, Imam Husain, p. 439. Lawa’ij al-Ashjān, p. 236.
  29. Balaghat al-Nisa p. 21 and 22, and Maqtal al-Husain by al-Khwarazmi, Vol. 2, p. 64. A’lām al-Nisā’, Vol. 2, p. 504. Al-Luhūf (published in 1369 AH), pp. 79-80. Anwār al-Hudā (Qom), p. 106. Al-Hadā’iq al-Wardīyah, Vol. 1, pp. 129-131. Al-Ihtijāj by al-Ṭabarasi, Vol. 2, p. 36. Muthīr al-Aḥzān, p. 80. Bihar al-Anwar, Vol. 45, pp. 134 and 159. Al-Awālim, Imam Husain, p. 434. Qāmūs al-Rijāl by al-Tustari, Vol. 12, pp. 270 and 271.
  30. Āthār al-Jāḥiẓ, p. 129, and (another edition), p. 398. The 11th Epistle in the Umayyad Series.
  31. Āthār al-Jāḥiẓ, p. 130.
  32. Āthār al-Jāḥiẓ, p. 129 and 130.
  33. Al-Sīrah al-Ḥalabīyah, Vol. 1, p. 267, and Tārīkh Ibn Khallikān (Iran), Vol. 1, p. 355. Translation of Kiyāhīrāsī, Ali Ibn Muhammad, and from Sīrat A’lām al-Nubalā’ by al-Zahabi, and from al-Rawḍ al-Bāṣim, Vol. 2, p. 36, and from Tafsīr al-Munār, Vol. 1, p. 367, and Vol. 2, pp. 183 and 185. Shazārāt al-Zahab, Vol. 1, p. 69.
  34. Al-I’tiḥāf bi-Ḥub al-Ashrāf, p. 68 and 63. Refer to: Al-Bidāyah wa’l-Nihāyah (Arabic Heritage Revival House), Vol. 8, p. 245.
  35. Al-Ṣawā’iq al-Muḥriqah, Vol. 2, pp. 633, 634, and 642. Siyar A’lām al-Nubalā’, Vol. 4, p. 40, and Tārīkh al-Khulafā (Dar al-Fikr, 1394 AH), p. 194.
  36. Tārīkh al-Khulafā, p. 207.
  37. Murā’at al-Zamān, Vol. 8, p. 496, Events of the Year 597. Refer to: Al-Ṣawā’iq al-Muḥriqah, Vol. 2, pp. 634, 635, and refer to: Minhāj al-Sunnah, Vol. 4, pp. 565-573, and Maqtal al-Husain by al-Muqarram, p. 33.
  38. Rooḥ al-Ma’ānī, Vol. 26, p. 72 and 73, and refer to: Al-Muntaẓim by Ibn al-Jawzi, Vol. 5, pp. 342 and 345, and Al-Ṣawā’iq al-Muḥriqah, Vol. 2, pp. 580, 634, and 635.
  39. Shadhārāt al-Dhahab, Vol. 1, p. 69.
  40. Introduction of Ibn Khaldun, p. 181, when discussing the leadership covenant.
  41. Refer to: Maqtal al-Husain by al-Khwarazmi, Vol. 2, p. 59, and (another edition), p. 35.
  42. Refer to: “Al-Kamil fi al-Tarikh” (Dar Sādir), Vol. 4, p. 87, and “Tārīkh al-Khulafā” (Dar al-Fikr), p. 195, and refer to: “Seyar A’lām al-Nubalā’,” Vol. 3, p. 317, and “Ma’ālī al-Sibtain” by al-Ḥā’irī, Vol. 2, p. 187, and “Maqtal al-Husain” by al-Muqarram, p. 34.
  43. “Āthār al-Jāḥiẓ,” p. 128 and 129.
  44. Refer to: “Shazārāt al-Dhahab,” Vol. 1, p. 68 and 69, and “Sharḥ al-‘Aqā’id al-Naṣafiyyah” by al-Taftazānī, p. 188, and “Fazl al-Quzāt” by al-Nishābūrī, Vol. 26, p. 72, and “Tafsīr al-Ālūsī,” Vol. 26, p. 72, and “Fulk al-Najat,” p. 93.
  45. ” Maqtal al-Husain” by al-Muqarram, p. 11, and (another edition), p. 31, from “Al-Ītiḥāf bi-Ḥub al-Ashrāf,” p. 23, and “Al-Kāmil fi al-Tarikh” (Dar Sādir), Vol. 4, p. 98.
  46. “Ithbāt al-Waṣiyah,” p. 143, and Refer to: “Al-Futūh” by Ibn al-A’tham (Dar al-Adwā’), Vol. 5, p. 130.
  47. “Balāghāt al-Nisā’,” by Aḥmad Ibn Abi Ṭāhir, p. 21, and ” Maqtal al-Husain” by al-Khwarazmi, Vol. 2, p. 62, and “Akhbār al-Zaynabāt” by al-ʿUbaydlī, p. 86, and “Al-Luhūf” (published in 1369 AH), p. 79.
  48. Refer to: “Al-Kāmil fi al-Tarikh,” Vol. 4, p. 87, and “Tārīkh al-Umam wa’l-Mulūk,” Vol. 4, pp. 352 and 355, and “Tafsīr al-Qumī,” Vol. 2, p. 352 on the interpretation of the verse in Surah Al-Shura. Also, “Tazkirat al-Khawāṣ,” p. 262, and “Maqātil Āl-e-Abī Ṭālib,” Vol. 3, p. 120, and “Seyar A’lām al-Nubalā’,” Vol. 3, p. 320.
  49. “Al-Futūh” by Ibn al-A’tham (Dar al-Adwā’), Vol. 5, p. 131, and Refer to: “Manāqib Āl Abī Ṭālib,” Vol. 3, p. 309, and “Behār al-Anwār,” Vol. 45, pp. 175 and 176, and “Al-‘Awālim,” Imam Husain, p. 411, and “Shajarat Ṭūbā,” Vol. 1, p. 164.
  50. ” Maqtal al-Husain” by al-Muqarram, p. 454, from “Al-Iḥtāf bi-Ḥub al-Ashrāf,” p. 23, and “Al-Kāmil fi al-Tarikh” (Dar Sādir), Vol. 4, p. 85, and “Tadhkirat al-Khawāṣ,” p. 148, and “Al-Ṣawā’iq al-Muḥriqah,” Vol. 2, p. 580. Also quoted from: “Al-Furūʿ” by Ibn Mufliḥ, Vol. 3, p. 549, and from the explanation of “Maqāmāt al-Ḥarīrī” by al-Sharbašī, Vol. 1, p. 93. Also refer to: “Majma’ al-Zawā’id,” Vol. 9, p. 195, and “Al-Fuṣūl al-Muhimah” by Ibn Ṣabbāgh, p. 205, and “Al-Khaṭṭ wa’l-Dīwān” by al-Muqriẓī, Vol. 2, p. 289, and “Al-Bidāyah wa’l-Nihāyah” (Arabic Heritage Revival House), Vol. 6, p. 260, and refer to: “Manāqib Āl-e-Abī Ṭālib” (Al-Haydari Printing Press), Vol. 3, p. 261, and “Seyar A’lām al-Nubalā’,” Vol. 3, pp. 319 and 320, and 309.
  51. “Al-Kawākib al-Durriyyah” by al-Munāwī, Vol. 1, p. 56.
  52. “Al-Futūh” by Ibn al-A’tham (Dar al-Adwā’), Vol. 5, p. 135.
  53. “Al-Futūh” by Ibn al-A’tham (Dar al-Adwā’), Vol. 5, p. 36, and “Yanābi’ al-Mawaddah” (Dar al-Aswah), Vol. 3, p. 31, and “Al-Ṣirāṭ al-Sawī” in “Manāqib Āl al-Nabī,” p. 85.
  54. Refer to: “Sharḥ al-Akhbār” (Islamic Publishing Center – Qom – Iran), Vol. 3, p. 253, and “Marāj al-Zamān fī Tawārīkh al-A’yan,” p. 106, and “Tazkirat al-Khawāṣ,” p. 290, and Refer to: “Murūj al-Zahab” by al-Maqrīzī, Vol. 3, p. 67.
  55. “Tārīkh al-Ya’qūbī,” Vol. 2, p. 222.
  56. “Al-Bidāyah wa’l-Nihāyah” (Dar Iḥyā’ al-Turāth al-Arabī), Vol. 8, p. 197, and (Dar Iḥyā al-Turāth al-ʿArabī), Vol. 8, p. 215, and “Tārīkh al-Umam al-Mulūk” (The Heritage Foundation), Vol. 4, p. 293. Also refer to: “Siyar A’lām al-Nubalā’,” Vol. 3, p. 309.
  57. Refer to: “Al-Khaṭṭ wa al-Dīwān” by al-Muqriẓī, Vol. 2, p. 289, and “Al-Ithāf bi-Ḥub al-Ashrāf,” p. 23, and “Maqtal al-Husain” by al-Khwarazmi, Vol. 2, p. 75, and “Siyar A’lām al-Nubalā’,” Vol. 3, p. 319.
  58. “Al-Bidāyah wa al-Nihāyah” (Dar Iḥyā’ al-Turāth al-ʿArabī), Vol. 8, p. 222, and “Sīrat A’lām al-Nubalā’,” Vol. 3, p. 319.
  59. “Al-A’mālī” by al-Ṣadūq (Al-Najaf al-Ashraf), p. 147, and (The Mission Foundation), p. 231, and “Rawḍat al-Wāʿiẓīn,” p. 191, and “Bihār al-Anwār,” Vol. 45, p. 156, and 157, and “Al-‘Awālim,” Imam Husain, p. 396, and “Mustadrak Safīnat al-Biḥār,” Vol. 4, p. 8.
  60. “Ṣubḥ al-Aʿshā” (General Egyptian Book Organization), Vol. 4, p. 97, and quoted from “Tadhhib al-Tahdhīb,” Vol. 1, p. 157, and from “Al-Rawḍ al-Maʿṭhūr” by al-Ḥamīrī, p. 237.
  61. “Al-A’mālī” by al-Ṣadūq, p. 148, and (The Mission Foundation), p. 231, and “Behār al-Anwār,” Vol. 45, p. 140, and “Al-‘Awālim,” Imam Husain, p. 440, and “Mustadrak Safīnat al-Biḥār,” Vol. 2, p. 172.
  62. Refer to: “Jawāhir al-Maṭālib” by Ibn al-Dimašqī, Vol. 2, p. 278, and Refer to: “Tarjumah al-Imām al-Husain min Ṭabaqāt Ibn Saʿd,” p. 92, and “Taẓkirat Khawāṣ al-Ummah,” p. 272 from it, and “Al-Fuṣūl al-Muhimah” by Ibn al-Ṣabbāgh, p. 863, and “Yanābi’ al-Mawaddah,” Vol. 3, p. 106, and “Baṣāʾir al-Darajāt,” p. 417, and “Al-Ikhtiṣāṣ,” p. 315, and “Al-Thāqib fī al-Manāqib,” p. 361, and “Tārīkh al-Ya’qūbī,” Vol. 2, p. 304, and “Madīnat al-Maʿājiz,” Vol. 4, p. 343, and 344, and 346, and 347, and 348, and 403, and 404, and “Yanābi’ al-Maʿājiz,” p. 113, and “Bihār al-Anwār,” Vol. 46, p. 44, and 119, and “Manāqib Āl al-Bayt” by al-Shīravānī, p. 257, and “Kashf al-Ghammah,” Vol. 2, p. 323, and “Sharḥ Iḥqāq al-Ḥaqq” (Appendices), Vol. 12, p. 99, and quoted from “Marūj al-Dhahab,” Vol. 3, p. 179.
  63. Refer to: “Al-Aghānī” (Sāsī), Vol. 4, p. 156.
  64. “Al-A’mālī” by al-Ṣadūq, p. 100, and “Behār al-Anwār,” Vol. 45, p. 127, and “Al-‘Awālim,” Imam Husain, p. 427, and “Lu’āj al-Ashjān,” p. 220, and refer to: “Maqtal al-Husain” by al-Khwarazmi, Vol. 2, pp. 60-61

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