Why were the Quraysh hostile to Ameerul Momineen (a.s.) and Hazrat Faatemah (s.a.)
Tags: History, Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.), Imam Ali b. Abi Talib (a.s.), Janabe Fatima Zahra (s.a.), Sahaabah, Sunnah
Animosity in the hearts of the people
Abu Ya’laa and Bazzaar have narrated on the authority of narrators considered correct by Haakim, Zahabi, Ibne Habbaan and others that Ameerul Momineen Ali Ibn Abi Taalib (a.s.) informed
“One day Holy Prophet took my hand in his hand and we both started walking slowly in one of the lanes of Madinah. We reached near a garden. I said, ‘O Prophet of Allah, what a beautiful garden!’
Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) said, ‘O Ali you have a more beautiful garden than this in paradise.’
After this we reached another garden. I said, ‘O Prophet of Allah, what a beautiful garden!’
Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) said, ‘O Ali you have a more beautiful garden than this in paradise.’
We came across seven gardens and after each garden I said, ‘what a beautiful garden!’ and Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) replied, ‘You have a more beautiful garden than this in paradise.’
When the road was deserted, Holy Prophet embraced me and began weeping. I asked, ‘O Prophet of Allah! What makes you weep?’
Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) informed, ‘This nation bears animosity towards you in their hearts which they will reveal after I am gone.’
I asked, ‘O Prophet of Allah! Will I be steadfast on my religion at the time?’
Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) replied, ‘Yes, you will be steadfast.’
This tradition has been recorded with the same meaning and text in Majma al-Zawaaed on the authority of Abu Noaimi and Bazzaar and in Mustadrak with the same chain of narrators. Haakim and Zahabi both consider this tradition to be correct.
Based on this it is an accepted fact that the chain of narrators of this tradition is correct. However the text is summarized in Mustadrak.
Only Allah knows whether this has been done by Haakim himself or was done in the subsequent editions (by the editor) or was done by the publisher.
On examining it is evident that the chain of narrators of this tradition is the same as the one taken by Abu Ya’laa and Bazzaar which Haakim and Zahabi consider as correct.
However the only difference in the two references is that Haakim has recorded this in an incomplete manner i.e. he has concluded the narration at ‘you have a more beautiful garden than this in paradise.’
Similarly it is evident from other traditions that the ‘nation’ referred to in this tradition is the Quraysh which has been elaborated in the forthcoming topics.
Who was responsible for misguiding the people after Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.)?
Another fact that is evident is it was the Quraysh who were responsible for the deviation and destruction of the people after the Holy Prophet’s (s.a.w.a.) demise. In one tradition Abu Huraira relates: Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) informed:
‘Some people from the Quraysh are dragging my nation towards destruction.’
People asked, ‘What should we do at that time?’
Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.):
‘The people should distance themselves from them (the corrupt ones from the Quraysh).’
In another tradition Abu Huraira says, I have heard from the truthful Prophet (s.a.w.a.),
‘The destruction of my nation will be at the hands of those from the Quraysh with lust for power.’
The people asked, ‘Is Marwan among them?’
Abu Huraira declares, ‘If I want I can name each one of them and I can even inform you of their tribes.’
Both these traditions are considered correct.
The Enmity of the Quraysh and Bani Umayyah toward Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) and his progeny
In the preceding pages we have recorded traditions wherein the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) had exposed the treachery and animosity of the people. Now we shall examine some narrations about the enmity of the Quraysh with special reference to Bani Umayyah.
Some of these people bore enmity from the time of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.), which was evident. However, since they could not settle scores with the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) they rose against the Ahle Bait (s.a.) in order to get back at Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.).
Ameerul Momineen (a.s.) relates,
اللّٰھمّ احفظ حسناً وحسیناً، ولا تمکّن فجرۃ قریش منھما ما دمت حیاً، فاذا توفّیتنی فانت الرقیب علیھم وانت علیٰ کل شيء شہید
‘O Allah, I seek help from You against the Quraysh. They concealed their hatred and animosity towards the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) because they could not reveal it. O Allah You protected him (s.a.w.a.) from them. Now they are targeting me with their hatred.
O Allah, protect Hasan and Husain till the time I am alive. Do not allow the transgressors of the Quraysh to dominate them. And after I depart from the world then You alone are a Custodian. And You are a Witness over everything.’
Note how Ameerul Momineen (a.s.) describes the hatred and animosity in the hearts of the Quraysh. Until the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) was alive Allah did not allow them to expressly show their animosity. However once the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) passed away Ameerul Momineen (s.a.) had to bear the brunt of their hostility.
Likewise, it is evident from Ameerul Momineen’s (a.s.) statement that the Quraysh would target Hasan (a.s.) and Husain (a.s.) with their hatred for the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) and would finally kill them.
In another sermon Ameerul Momineen Ali Ibn Abi Taalib (a.s.) declares,
One person told me, ‘O son of Abu Talib you are greedy for leadership.’
I replied, ‘By Allah, you people are greedier for leadership while you have nothing to do with it. On the other hand I am more deserving of it and I am (only) demanding my right. You are obstructing my path and preventing me from acquiring leadership.’
‘When I convinced him with firm arguments and proofs in the midst of the people, he realised he was wrong and was so stunned that he could not respond.’
‘O Allah, I seek help from You against the Quraysh and their helpers. Surely they have severed relations with me. They have belittled my high status and they have gathered to contend with me regarding the matter that was exclusively for me.’ Then the people said, ‘sometime you should demand your right and sometime you should abandon them.’
Ameerul Momineen Ali Ibn Abi Taalib (a.s.) wrote a letter to his brother Aqeel..
‘Leave the discussion about Quraysh and their deviation and their dissent and their stubbornness as these people have already decided to fight me like they had decided to fight the Prophet of Allah (s.a.w.a.). Now only Allah will punish the Quraysh for severing relations with me and usurping the leadership of my cousin (Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.)) from me.’
Ibne Adi in his book Al-Kaamil narrates: Once Abu Sufyan said, ‘the example of Muhammed (s.a.w.a.) in the Bani Hashim is like the example of a flower with sweet fragrance in the midst of foul odour.
Someone informed the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) about Abu Sufyan’s statement. On hearing this, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) rose while his face showed signs of anger. (He said)
‘What kind of senseless talks am I hearing from the people?’
Ibne Adi in Al-Kaamil has clearly mentioned Abu Sufyan’s name while recording this narration.
In some other books the same statement has been documented but instead of Abu Sufyan it is attributed to an anonymous person. For example refer to Majma al-Zawaaed.
In another tradition Abdul Muttalib Ibn Rab’ee Ibn Harith Ibn Abdul Muttalib narrates, ‘Some of the Ansaar approached the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) and said: We are hearing senseless talks from people related to your tribe to the extent that one person said – Muhammed (s.a.w.a.) is like a date tree growing in the midst of rubbish!’
Even this narration has been recorded with some changes (to conceal the truth).
The Cause of the Enmity
Take away prejudice and stubbornness of the historians and traditionalists and it will become clear that the animosity and snide comments were a result of the close proximity between Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) and Ameerul Momineen Ali Ibn Abi Taalib (a.s.). These people were challenging Ameerul Momineen Ali Ibn Abi Taalib (a.s.) so that they could exact vengeance from the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.). In addition to this Ameerul Momineen Ali Ibn Abi Taalib’s (a.s.) role in slaying the senior members of Quraysh in various battles was another factor which cannot be ignored as a cause for animosity. Especially when one considers that Uthmaan himself had pointed this out to Ameerul Momineen Ali Ibn Abi Taalib (a.s.).
Aabi in his book Nathr al-Dorar records that Ibne Abbas narrates that in one of the discussions with Ameerul Momineen Ali Ibn Abi Taalib (a.s.), Uthmaan said
‘What do I do if the Quraysh do not love you? In the battle of Badr you had killed seventy of their members of which each one was like shining gold.’
Obviously, the Quraysh could not express their resentment over this humiliation in front of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.). So they turned against the Ahle Bait (s.a.) to exact revenge just as the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) had prophesied.
This led to a chain of events wherein they turned against Hazrat Faatemah (s.a.) and Ameerul Momineen Ali Ibn Abi Taalib (a.s.). After them they opposed Imam Hasan (a.s.) and Imam Husain (a.s.). The opposition to Ahle Bait (a.s.) and by extension to their lovers is evident till date.
Enmity with Ameerul Momineen Ali Ibn Abi Taalib (a.s.) and Hazrat Faatemah (s.a.)
What is evident from history is that every effort was made to restrict the propagation of the traditions of the infallibles (a.s.). On the other hand the traditionalists and narrators of Sunnis were relentlessly forging traditions and narrations. The caliphs prohibited the narration of important traditions which had the potential to embarrass them. Books that recorded such narrations were either burnt or destroyed. Under such circumstances, it is not possible for one to demand that the incidents related to oppression and injustice on Hazrat Faatemah (s.a.) be presented in a precise and unambiguous manner. Rather, we can narrate these incidents in the briefest manner possible given that the traditionalists and historians who were conscious of their duty to present the truth narrated the events with great difficulty and at great risk. These events were concealed and transmitted secretly so as not to alert the government who wanted to put an end to its propagation.
The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) had already informed the Ahle Bait (a.s.) that the nation would behave treacherously with them and take revenge from them.
The Quraysh sought to take revenge from the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) by tormenting Hazrat Faatemah (s.a.) who was a part of him. Since the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) had already mentioned that Faatemah (s.a.) is a part of me, the Quraysh sought to spite the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) by turning against Hazrat Faatemah (s.a.).
Hazrat Faatemah (s.a.) was present in the nation as a part of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) so that the nation could be examined and those who bore enmity towards the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) would be exposed through their enmity of Hazrat Faatemah (s.a.).
And this examination came very quickly after the Holy Prophet’s (s.a.w.a.) demise so much so that Hazrat Faatemah (s.a.) passed away to meet her father just like he had prophesied.
We do not expect to compile all the incidents and narrations right down to the minutest detail. However, if we can compile even 50% of the narrations and incidents then it is reasonable to say that we can conclude from the remaining incidents to a large extent.
We have seen the level of distortion that these narrations have been exposed to so much so that the narration of Abu Sufyan, Islam’s biggest enemy, insulting the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) has been recorded by attributing it to an anonymous person.
Therefore, it is unreasonable to expect that we record all the incidents that transpired after the Holy Prophet’s (s.a.w.a.) demise when many of these incidents and narrations involve such explosive comments and reputed personalities.
However, Allah’s Grace and Bounties on His servants have ensured that despite the most trying of circumstances, some faithful historians and narrators were always present to document these incidents and narrations so that the truth would be evident to the seekers of truth across all eras.
Our endeavour at all times has been to narrate from the reputed books of Sunnis. We have not taken the help of Shiah references in this matter.
Even with the Sunnis references we have taken care to narrate from ancient texts as opposed to those that were compiled in the subsequent centuries.
 Majma al-Zawaaed, vol. 9, pg. 118
 Mustadrak, vol. 3, pg. 139
 Mizaan al-Etedaal, vol. 3, pg. 355
 Musnad-e-Ahmad, vol. 2, pg. 288, 301, 324, 328
 Sharho Nahj al-Balaaghah, vol. 20, pg. 298
 Nahj al-Balaaghah, vol. 2, pg. 84; Nahj al-Balaaghah of Faiz al-Islam Sermon 171
 Sharho Nahj al-Balaaghah, vol. 16, pg. 151
 We have taken great care to translate critical sentences from Sunnis sources.
 Al-Kaamil fi al-Zo’faaee, vol. 3, pg. 28
 Majma al-Zawaaed, vol. 8, pg. 215
 This book has been published and now available in the market. For more details refer to Sharho Nahj al-Balaaghah, vol. 9, pg. 23