The commentary of the word of Allah, the High:

إِنَْمَا يُرِيدُ اللهُ لِيُذْهِبَ عَنكُمُ الرِْجْسَ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ وَيُطَهِْرَكُمْ تَطْهِيرًا

“Allah only desires to keep away the uncleanness from you, O People of the House, and to purify you, a (thorough) purifying.”[1]

In Ghaayah al-Maraam, it is recorded as follows:

Tradition Twenty-One: Tha’labi narrates that ‘informed me Abu Abdillah from Abdullah Ibn Ahmad Ibn Yusuf Ibn Maalek from Muhammad Ibn Ibraheem Ibn Ziyaad from al-Harth Ibn Abdullah al-Haarethi from Qais Ibn al-Rabee’ from al-A’mash from Ebaayah Ibn Rab’ee from Ibn Abbas (r.a.) who says, “The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.a.) said, ‘Allah divided the creatures into two. He placed me in the better of the two kinds. This is His saying, وَأَصْحَابُ الْيَمِينِ مَا أَصْحَابُ

الْيَمِينِ ‘And the companions of the right hand; how happy are the companions of the right hand!’[2] So, I am the best of the companions of the right hand. Thereafter, He further divided the one-third into two kinds and placed me in the better of the two and this is His saying, فَأَصْحَابُ

وَالسَْابِقُونَ السَْابِقُونَ الْمَيْمَنَةِ مَا أَصْحَابُ الْمَيْمَنَةِ

“Then (as to) the companions of the right hand; how happy are the companions of the right hand!”[3] and “And the foremost are the foremost.”[4]

So, I am from the foremost ones and the best of the foremost ones. Again, He divided this one-third into tribes and made me from the best of the tribes. Then, He made the tribes into houses and made for me the best house and this is the meaning of His saying, “Allah only desires to keep away the uncleanness from you, O People of the House, and to purify you, a (thorough) purifying.”[5]

Tradition Twenty-Two from al-Humaidi who says, ‘The sixty-fourth tradition, on which both the Saheeh (Bukhari and Muslim) agree, narrating from the Musnad of Ayesha from Mus’ab Ibn Shaibah from Safiyyah Binte Shaibah from Ayesha, who chronicles, “One morning, the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) went out. On him was a cloak of black hair with designs of mount on it. When al-Hasan Ibn Ali (a.s.) came, he (s.a.w.a.) made him (a.s.) enter the cloak. Then came al-Husain (a.s.) and he (s.a.w.a.) made him (a.s.) enter the cloak as well. Then came Fatemah (s.a.) and he (s.a.w.a.) made her (s.a.) enter the cloak, followed by Ali (a.s.), who was also made to enter the cloak. Thereafter, he (s.a.w.a.) proclaimed, “Allah only desires to keep away the uncleanness from you, O People of the House, and to purify you, a (thorough) purifying.” Mus’ab Ibn Shaibah and Safiyyah Binte Shaibah don’t have any other tradition besides this one in the Musnad of Saheehain.’ [6]

Tradition Twenty-Three: From al-Jam’ Bain al-Sehaah al-Sittah from Mawattaa of Maalek Ibn Anas al-Asbahi and Saheeh Muslim, al-Bukhari, Sunan of Abi Dawood al-Sajistaani, Saheeh al-Tirmidhi and the great manuscript of Saheeh al-Nisaai from the Jam’ of Shaikh Abu al-Hasan Rezzeen Ibn Moaviyah al-Abdari al-Sarqasti al-Aandloosi from the Saheeh of Abu Dawood al-Sajistaani, which is a Book of traditions, under the exegesis of the saying of Allah, ‘Allah only desires to keep away the uncleanness from you, O People of the House, and to purify you, a (thorough) purifying’ from Ayesha who reports, “One morning, the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) went out. On him was a cloak of black hair with designs of mount on it. When al-Hasan Ibn Ali (a.s.) came, he (s.a.w.a.) made him (a.s.) enter the cloak. Then came al-Husain (a.s.) and he (s.a.w.a.) made him (a.s.) enter the cloak as well. Then came Fatemah (s.a.) and he (s.a.w.a.) made her (s.a.) enter the cloak, followed by Ali (a.s.), who was also made to enter the cloak. Thereafter, he (s.a.w.a.) proclaimed, “Allah only desires to keep away the uncleanness from you, O People of the House, and to purify you, a (thorough) purifying.”

He says, “Umm Salmah — the wife of the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) — recounts, ‘This verse was revealed in my house ‘Allah only desires to keep away the uncleanness from you, O People of the House, and to purify you, a (thorough) purifying.’ I was sitting at the door. I asked, ‘O Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.a.)! Am I not from your Ahle Bait (a.s.)? He (s.a.w.a.) replied, ‘You are on goodness. You are from the wives of the Messenger of Allah. ’ She reports, ‘In the house was the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.a.), Ali (a.s.), Fatemah (s.a.), al-Hasan (a.s.) and al-Husain (a.s.). So, he (s.a.w.a.) covered them with the cloak and prayed, ‘O Allah! These are my Ahle Bait. Then remove from them all uncleanness and purify them a (thorough) purifying.’ [7]

Tradition Twenty-Four: In the Sunan of Abi Dawood, Mawattaa of Maalek, it has been reported from Anas, “When this verse was revealed, the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.a.) used to come to the door of Fatemah (s.a.) when he (s.a.w.a.) came out for the morning prayers for nearly six months and announce, ‘Prayers, O Ahle Bait! Allah only desires to keep away the uncleanness from you, O People of the House, and to purify you, a (thorough) purifying.’[8]

The commentary of the word of Allah, the High:

إِنَْمَا يُرِيدُ اللهُ لِيُذْهِبَ عَنكُمُ الرِْجْسَ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ وَيُطَهِْرَكُمْ تَطْهِيرًا

“Allah only desires to keep away the uncleanness from you, O People of the House, and to purify you, a (thorough) purifying.”[9]

In Ghaayah al-Maraam, it is recorded as follows:

Tradition Twenty-One: Tha’labi narrates that ‘informed me Abu Abdillah from Abdullah Ibn Ahmad Ibn Yusuf Ibn Maalek from Muhammad Ibn Ibraheem Ibn Ziyaad from al-Harth Ibn Abdullah al-Haarethi from Qais Ibn al-Rabee’ from al-A’mash from Ebaayah Ibn Rab’ee from Ibn Abbas (r.a.) who says, “The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.a.) said, ‘Allah divided the creatures into two. He placed me in the better of the two kinds. This is His saying, وَأَصْحَابُ الْيَمِينِ مَا أَصْحَابُ الْيَمِينِ ‘And the companions of the right hand; how happy are the companions of the right hand!’[10] So, I am the best of the companions of the right hand. Thereafter, He further divided the one-third into two kinds and placed me in the better of the two and this is His saying, فَأَصْحَابُ الْمَيْمَنَةِ مَا أَصْحَابُ الْمَيْمَنَةِ “Then (as to) the companions of the right hand; how happy are the companions of the right hand!”[11] and وَالسَْابِقُونَ السَْابِقُونَ “And the foremost are the foremost.”[12]

So, I am from the foremost ones and the best of the foremost ones. Again, He divided this one-third into tribes and made me from the best of the tribes. Then, He made the tribes into houses and made for me the best house and this is the meaning of His saying, “Allah only desires to keep away the uncleanness from you, O People of the House, and to purify you, a (thorough) purifying.”[13]

Tradition Twenty-Two: From al-Humaidi who says, ‘The sixty-fourth tradition, on which both the Saheeh (Bukhari and Muslim) agree, narrating from the Musnad of Ayesha from Mus’ab Ibn Shaibah from Safiyyah Binte Shaibah from Ayesha, who chronicles, “One morning, the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) went out. On him was a cloak of black hair with designs of mount on it. When al-Hasan Ibn Ali (a.s.) came, he (s.a.w.a.) made him (a.s.) enter the cloak. Then came al-Husain (a.s.) and he (s.a.w.a.) made him (a.s.) enter the cloak as well. Then came Fatemah (s.a.) and he (s.a.w.a.) made her (s.a.) enter the cloak, followed by Ali (a.s.), who was also made to enter the cloak. Thereafter, he (s.a.w.a.) proclaimed, “Allah only desires to keep away the uncleanness from you, O People of the House, and to purify you, a (thorough) purifying.” Mus’ab Ibn Shaibah and Safiyyah Binte Shaibah don’t have any other tradition besides this one in the Musnad of Saheehain.’ [14]

Tradition Twenty-Three: From al-Jam’ Bain al-Sehaah al-Sittah from Mawattaa of Maalek Ibn Anas al-Asbahi and Saheeh Muslim, al-Bukhari, Sunan of Abi Dawood al-Sajistaani, Saheeh al-Tirmidhi and the great manuscript of Saheeh al-Nisaai from the Jam’ of Shaikh Abu al-Hasan Rezzeen Ibn Moaviyah al-Abdari al-Sarqasti al-Aandloosi from the Saheeh of Abu Dawood al-Sajistaani, which is a Book of traditions, under the exegesis of the saying of Allah, ‘Allah only desires to keep away the uncleanness from you, O People of the House, and to purify you, a (thorough) purifying’ from Ayesha who reports, “One morning, the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) went out. On him was a cloak of black hair with designs of mount on it. When al-Hasan Ibn Ali (a.s.) came, he (s.a.w.a.) made him (a.s.) enter the cloak. Then came al-Husain (a.s.) and he (s.a.w.a.) made him (a.s.) enter the cloak as well. Then came Fatemah (s.a.) and he (s.a.w.a.) made her (s.a.) enter the cloak, followed by Ali (a.s.), who was also made to enter the cloak. Thereafter, he (s.a.w.a.) proclaimed, “Allah only desires to keep away the uncleanness from you, O People of the House, and to purify you, a (thorough) purifying.”

He says, “Umm Salmah — the wife of the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) — recounts, ‘This verse was revealed in my house ‘Allah only desires to keep away the uncleanness from you, O People of the House, and to purify you, a (thorough) purifying.’ I was sitting at the door. I asked, ‘O Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.a.)! Am I not from your Ahle Bait (a.s.)? He (s.a.w.a.) replied, ‘You are on goodness. You are from the wives of the Messenger of Allah. ’ She reports, ‘In the house was the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.a.), Ali (a.s.), Fatemah (s.a.), al-Hasan (a.s.) and al-Husain (a.s.). So, he (s.a.w.a.) covered them with the cloak and prayed, ‘O Allah! These are my Ahle Bait. Then remove from them all uncleanness and purify them a (thorough) purifying.’ [15]

Tradition Twenty-Four: In the Sunan of Abi Dawood, Mawattaa of Maalek, it has been reported from Anas, “When this verse was revealed, the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.a.) used to come to the door of Fatemah (s.a.) when he (s.a.w.a.) came out for the morning prayers for nearly six months and announce, ‘Prayers, O Ahle Bait! Allah only desires to keep away the uncleanness from you, O People of the House, and to purify you, a (thorough) purifying.’[16]

Then, he continued the traditions till he records,

Tradition Thirty-One: Ibn Abi al-Hadeed, a celebrated scholar of the Motazelah sect, in Sharh Nahj al-Balaghah writes, “Indeed, the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.a.) has clearly explained who his (s.a.w.a.) progeny are when he (s.a.w.a.) declared, ‘I am leaving among you two weighty things…and my progeny, my Ahle Bait (a.s.)’. At another place, he (s.a.w.a.) made clear who his (s.a.w.a.) Ahle Bait (a.s.) when he (s.a.w.a.) placed the cloak on them, and when the Verse of Purification was revealed, he (s.a.w.a.) said, ‘O Allah! These are my Ahle Bait (a.s.); so dispel from them all uncleanness.’

Then, Ibn Abi al-Hadeed writes, “If you ask as to who are the progeny implied by Ameerul Momineen (a.s.) in this statement? I will say, Ali (a.s.) himself and his two sons. Although, in actuality, it is he (a.s.) alone because his two sons follow him and their relation with him (a.s.) is like that of brilliant stars with a shining sun, a fact elucidated by the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.a.) when he (s.a.w.a.) said, ‘…and your father is better than you two…’. His (s.a.w.a.) saying, ‘And they are the reins of the truth, all the reins, as He has made the truth revolve around them wherever they set out and to go with them wherever they go; just as a she-camel is led  by its bridle.’ The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.a.) has explained the veracity of this virtue by his (s.a.w.a.) supplication, ‘(O Allah!) Make the truth revolve wherever he (Ali) goes.’ His saying, ‘The tongues of truth in the noble words of the Holy Quran, Allah — the High — says, ‘وَاجْعَل لِْي لِسَانَ صِدْقٍ فِي الْآخِرِينَ “And ordain for me tongues of truth among (my) posterity.”[17] They (Ahle Bait (a.s.)) did not utter any word or judgement but that it was in conformity with the truth and correctness. Similarly, they (a.s.) were the tongues of truth; never ever did any false statement emanate from them. Nay, truth was their (a.s.) nature. His (s.a.w.a.) saying, ‘(O Allah) Elevate them (Ahle Bait (a.s.)) to the highest positions of Quran’ indeed bears great esoteric implication and that is, He has ordered the people that they obey the progeny (a.s.) with all their (a.s.) majesty and greatness and submit to them (a.s.) and obey their commands as they do to the Holy Quran.

Thereafter, Ibn Abil Hadeed writes, “If you object that the Shiites believe that the progeny (a.s.) is infallible, so what is the belief of your companions (Motazelis) in this regard?’ I say that the document of Abu Muhammad Ibn Muttawiyah (r.a.) in the book, ‘al-Kefaayah’ that, ‘Surely, Ali (a.s.) is infallible, although infallibility was not obligatory on him nor is infallibility a pre-requisite for Imamate. But textual proofs have established his infallibility and are definite about his internal and hidden (infallibility). Verily, this matter (infallibility) is specific only to him (a.s.) to the exclusion of all other people. The difference between the statements that ‘Zaid is infallible’ and ‘It is obligatory for Zaid to be infallible as he is an Imam’ is apparent. From the conditions of an Imam is that he should be infallible. So, the first statement is our belief while the second is the creed of the Shiites.’”[18]

I say: There is no doubt about the descent of the Verse of Purification in the glory of the Five Holy Souls (a.s.), a fact agreed upon by all Muslims and endorsed by the consecutive traditions narrated by both the sects. The glory lies in the explanation of the meaning of the noble verse and its proving the infallibility of the Ahle Bait (a.s.) and distinguishing Imamate with them (a.s.) only, to the exclusion of all others from the Ummah.

Explanation of the statement concerning it depends upon the presentation of a preface comprising four affairs:

A)    Divine Intention is related to both aspects: World of Creation (تكويني) (where the volition of creature has no role) as well as Legislative (تشريعي) (which involves human volition as well). In the first (i.e. the world of creation), mere divine intention involves immediate implementation of the intended one. إِذَا أَرَادَ شَيْئًا أَنْ يَقُوْلَ لَهُ كُنْ فَيَكُوْنُ “…when He intends anything, is only to say to it: Be, so it is.”[19] But the second (i.e. the legislative world) does not necessitate the occurrence of the intended one externally as it involves the obedience of His commands by the servants and their keeping away from His disobedience. Obviously, mere command and prohibition does not necessitate the realization of obedience, essentially; otherwise, they would be forced on obedience and leaving the sins.

B)    Uncleanness (الرجس) is an absolute all-embracing term that includes anything filthy. So, sins — both major and minor — are uncleanness and so are immoral acts even if inconsequential. In fact, all acts that follow the carnal desires even though the acts may be permissible and any act is Satanic and where he has a role to play will be enumerated as uncleanness.

C)    Surely, an indefinite noun and all its usages when occur in negation or any of its meanings include all its implications, as is obvious and popular amongst them

D)    Surely, keeping away from uncleanness and purification is of two types. Firstly, dispelling it away after its presence by doing an act that will dispel it e.g. removing the unclean things by washing with water or purification of his soul by a sinner from the uncleanness of sins through acts of repentance and turning towards Allah. Secondly, keeping it away from uncleanness by protecting uncleanness from reaching its place through divine strength and power. In this case, keeping away uncleanness and purification is like your saying to  a digger, ‘Close the mouth of the well.’ Or like the saying of the litterateurs, ‘The Subject is independent of the factors that change its vowels.’ It implies the proverb that is quite popular, ‘When a thing remains in its limits, it is protected against all attacks.’ Here, protection from uncleanness is acquired through a cause that is external to it.

So, when these four points are clear for you, then know that in the aforementioned verse, divine intention is not for the Legislative (تشريعي) world because Allah — the High — has created the Jinn and the humans for obedience and worship and facilitated the same for them and ordered them to obey and worship Him. Allah — the High — informs, وَمَا خَلَقْتُ الْجِنَْ وَالْإِنسَ إِلاَ لِيَعْبُدُونِ “And I have not created the jinn and the men except that they should serve Me.”[20] So, there would be no reason of distinction for the Ahle Bait (a.s.) and limiting the intention in their obedience. So, it is determined that in this verse divine intention in the World of Creation (تكويني) is intended, where the intended occurs instantly without any delay.

The word الرجس is singular and bears the definite article ال. Although it’s not used for generality in itself but can be used for the same purpose when used as an object (مفعول) for the word ليذهب (that He may dispel) because dispelling, either in the meaning of removal or keeping away, in both cases implies the absence of uncleanness and its negation. This absence cannot be applied absolutely except through removal of all of its applications. Even clearer in the general application of the concept is the saying of Allah — the High – وَيُطَهِْرَكُمْ تَطْهِيرًا “…and to purify you, a (thorough) purifying” because purification cannot be achieved if some or other form of uncleanness is present. Purification can be achieved by removing all forms and types of uncleanness and to keep it away from the desired place.

From what we have explained, the infallibility of the Ahle Bait (a.s.) and their purification from all uncleanness and filth, whether sin or any other form, has become extremely clear.

Objection: The noble verse only proves their infallibility at the time of its descent and not prior to it because Allah — the High — informs about His intention in the present tense. The usage of the present tense shows that it is either for the present or for the future. Therefore, it does not establish their infallibility at the time of their birth — as the Shiites claim — especially with the term ‘purification’ and the removal of uncleanness proves that it (uncleanness) was present earlier.

Answer: Surely, the Holy Quran was revealed altogether on the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.a.) in one instance before its gradual descent in the course of Prophethood. So, even if the verse talks about the present tense, it is talking about the time when the Book was revealed altogether and not of the gradual descent. While, the total revelation was before the birth of the Ahle Bait (a.s.) as is evident from history. Moreover, it is prohibited to use the Present Tense in its limited sense in such instances.

Explanation: A verb does not essentially depend on being associated with any one of the tenses, as if popular among the modern Arabic scholars. Nay, it depends upon the information of the action of the named one, as was used by Ameerul Momineen (a.s.). The difference between its types is only on the basis of the variations in the predicates. So, the past tense is formed to use the achievement of the Subject of the essential being just as the present tense is formed for describing the essential being with the Subject. Likewise, the imperative tense is formulated to convey the meaning of desiring a description of the essential being of the Subject, a fact proved through the continuous and uninterrupted usage. Now, using the Past Tense to convey an action of the past or the Present Tense for the present and future is on account of its varying applications in the language and not in its formulation like we have explained it in its place. There is no application for the application of the Present Tense only for the present or the future over here. For, when it is used for praise, condemnation, gratitude, etc., it depicts the continuity in description. Don’t you see the saying of Allah — the Mighty —

اللهُ يَسْتَهْزِىءُ بِهِمْ وَيَمُدُْهُمْ فِي طُغْيَانِهِمْ يَعْمَهُونَ

“Allah shall pay them back their mockery, and He leaves them alone in their inordinacy, wandering blindly.”[21]

does not imply that Allah will pay them back in their mockery only in the present tense or in the future, and He has not paid them back in their mockery in the past. Rather, it implies that He is described with paying them back their mockery due to their hypocrisy and their mocking at His Messenger (s.a.w.a.). The same applies over here, when Allah — the High — is declaring the purification of the Ahle Bait (a.s.) from all uncleanness. So, the verse “Allah only desires to keep away the uncleanness from you, O People of the House,….” implies the divine intention of purification of the Ahle Bait (a.s.) from all uncleanness, and this qualification is continuous. It’s incorrect to suggest that He is described only in the present tense and not prior to it. Nay, the pronoun of the addressee in His saying, ‘O People of the House’ establishes that Allah — the High — has intended the keeping away of all uncleanness from them since they are the Ahle Bait (a.s.) of the Prophethood, a distinction present in them in the past, present as well as future. So, there is no scope for separation of the tenses at this juncture and relating the intention of purification in the present tense, excluding the past tense.

From what we have explained, it is clear that the removal of uncleanness and purification over here is in the meaning of keeping away and not removing it after its presence. Praise be to Allah — the High — the misconceptions of the opponents have been answered.

All these were pertaining only to the literal discussions vis-à-vis the noble verse, not taking into account the numerous traditions that explain and stand testimony to this fact. But when one pays attention to these traditions, the matter will become clearer and more apparent. Surely, the saying of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.a.) in the first tradition, ‘…and made for me the best house…’ and his (s.a.w.a.) using the verse, “Allah only desires to keep away the uncleanness from you, O People of the House, and to purify you, a (thorough) purifying” as a testimony and evidence proves that the Ahle Bait (a.s.) were the best among the earlier ones. Allah — the High — has chosen and selected them (a.s.) over His creatures, purified them from all uncleanness and protected them from all errors when He created them, as the numerous traditions narrated by both the sects have proved. Like the tradition that the words that Prophet Adam (a.s.) received from his Lord and through which he (a.s.) repented were the names of the Five Infallible Souls (a.s.)[22] and but for them (a.s.), Allah would not have created Adam (a.s.) or anybody else.[23] It is unwise to suggest that the Ahle Bait (a.s.) enjoyed such an elevated position without enjoying the quality of infallibility from day one. The supplication of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.a.) “O Allah! These are my Ahle Bait (a.s.). Keep away from them all uncleanness and purify them, a thorough purification” is not contrary to the above point because the above supplication drew one’s attention to the fact that supplication and seeking from Allah — the High – is a must for the continuity of a bounty.

When the infallibility of the Ahle Bait (a.s.) has become amply evident for you through the documents of the Holy Quran and consecutive traditions from both the sects, it will become clear for you that Imamate is only for them since infallibility is not proved for anybody else in the Ummah nor has anybody staked a claim to this lofty position. While, Imamate revolves around infallibility because it implies common chieftainship in religious as well as worldly affairs and such a great status cannot be entrusted to anybody except the one who is protected from uncleanness and filth.

If it is argued that infallibility is not a criterion for being entrusted with Imamate —as opined by the Sunnis — then too Ahle Bait (a.s.) are more eligible for this position. For, it is irrational that a person who is prone to sins and uncleanness should be the referral authority, refuge and leader —whose obedience is obligatory — for the one who has been protected by Allah from all uncleanness and sins and purified him, a thorough purification. To believe that it is permissible to appoint such a sinner as an Imam is contrary to the basic principles of intellect. Moreover, it is not permissible to suggest that an infallible is the leader of his self and must not follow anybody nor should anyone follow him as it may lead to some differences in the Ummah. Such a suggestion is baseless and absurd in itself, along with the fact that it is essential for a person to either obey or be obeyed. Any third option would inevitably cause corruption and destruction.


[1] Surah Ahzaab (33): Verse 33

[2] Surah Waaqeah (56): Verse 27

[3] Surah Waaqeah (56): Verse 8

[4] Surah Waaqeah (56): Verse 10

[5] Ghaayah al-Maraam, p. 289 narrating from Tafseer Tha’labi

[6] Ghaayah al-Maraam, p. 289 narrating from al-Jam’ Bain al-Saheehain

[7] Ghaayah al-Maraam, p. 289

[8] Ghaayah al-Maraam, p. 289

[9] Surah Ahzaab (33): Verse 33

[10] Surah Waaqeah (56): Verse 27

[11] Surah Waaqeah (56): Verse 8

[12] Surah Waaqeah (56): Verse 10

[13] Ghaayah al-Maraam, p. 289 narrating from Tafseer Tha’labi

[14] Ghaayah al-Maraam, p. 289 narrating from al-Jam’ Bain al-Saheehain

[15] Ghaayah al-Maraam, p. 289

[16] Ghaayah al-Maraam, p. 289.

[17] Surah al-Shuaraa (26): Verse 84

[18] Ghaayah al-Maraam, p. 261 narrating from Sharh Nahj al-Balaaghah, vol. 6, p. 375

[19] Surah Yaasin (36): Verse 82

[20] Surah Dhaariyaat (51): Verse 56

[21] Surah Baqarah (2): Verse 15

[22] Ghaayah al-Maraam, pp. 393-394

[23] Ghaayah al-Maraam, p. 5-7