The meaning of Lanat (Curse), in the dictionary, is to ‘make far’, or ‘to separate’.

لَعْنَه لَعْنًا: طَرَدُه وَ اَبْعَدَه عَنِ الْخَيْرِ

‘To curse means he made him far from himself or made him far from good.’
(Mufradaat, pg. 422, Majmaul Bahrain, vol. 1-2, pg. 404)

Terminologically, lanat means to pray to Allah to keep a person far from His Mercy. Lanat is the opposite of Salaam, which is a prayer to Allah for His Mercy on a person. Salawaat and Lanat are ways of manifesting Tawallah [love of Ahle Bait (a.s.)] and Tabarrah [enmity with the enemies of Ahle Bait (a.s.)]. They both go hand in hand.

Turahi says:

اَللَّعْنُ: اَلطَّرْدُ وَ الْاَبْعَادُ عَلٰي سَبِيْلِ الْسَّخَطِ وَ ذٰلِكَ مِنَ اللهِ تَعَالٰي فِيْ الْآخِرَةِ عُقُوْبَةٌ، وَ فَيْ الدُّنْيَا اِنْقِطَاعُ مِنْ قُبُوْلِ رَحْمَتِه وَ تَوْفِيْقِه-

Lanat means to keep distance from someone because of anger. The maloon (the accursed) will be punished by Allah on the Day of Judgment and he is deprived of Allah’s mercy and blessings in this world.
(Ibid)

The discussion of Lanat is of those matters among the two sects of Islam (Shiaism and Sunnism) which have few commonalities. In reality, nobody denies the concept of Lanat as it has the stamp of the Holy Quran and reliable traditions of Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.). The problem arises only when some people hesitate or prohibit people from cursing the ones who have been cursed by the Holy Quran and the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.). Moreover, they display their friendship with the enemies of Allah and the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a). This personality worship is the cause of the differences. Let us discuss the belief of Lanat in light of the Holy Quran and traditions.

Holy Quran and Lanat

Quranic Verses can be divided into four parts.

1. Curse on Iblis.

وَّ اِنَّ عَلَيْكَ اللَّعْنَةَ اِلٰى يَوْمِ الدِّيْنِ

‘And surely on you is curse until the Day of Judgment.’
(Surah Hijr,15:35)

وَّ اِنَّ عَلَيْكَ لَعْنَتِىْٓ اِلٰى يَوْمِ الدِّيْنِ`

‘And surely My curse is on you until the Day of Judgment.’
(Surah Suad,38:78)

Allah has cursed Iblis. (i.e. He has made him far from His Mercy.) When Iblis was cursed, he said to Allah, ‘I will certainly have a special share from Your servants.’

2. Curse on the Disbelievers.

a) General Curse

اِنَّ اللهَ لَعَنَ الْكَافِرِيْنَ وَ اَعَدَّ لَهُمْ سَعِيْرًا

‘Surely Allah has cursed the unbelievers and has prepared for them a burning fire’
(Surah Ahzab, 33: 64)

اِنَّ الَّذِيْنَ كَفَرُوْا وَمَاتُوْا وَهُمْ كُفَّارٌ اُولَآئِكَ عَلَيْهِمْ لَعْنَةٌ اللهِ وَالْمَلَآئَكَةِ وَالنَّاسِ اَجْمَعِيْنَ

‘Surely those who disbelieve and die while they are disbelievers, these it is on whom is the curse of Allah and the angels and men all.’
(Surah Baqarah, 2: 161)

وَعَدَ اللهُ الْمُنَافِقِيْنَ وَالْمُنَافِقَاتِ وَالْكُفَّارَ نَارَ جَهَنَّمَ خَالِدِيْنَ فِيْهَا، هِىَ حَسْبُهُمْ، وَ لَعَنَهُمُ اللهُ، وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ مُّقِيْمٌ

‘Allah has promised the hypocritical men and the hypocritical women and the unbelievers the fire of hell to abide therein; it is enough for them. And Allah has cursed them and they shall have a lasting punishment.’
(Surah Tauba, 9:68)

b) Those who turned to disbelief after believing

كَيْفَ يَهْدِى اللهُ قَوْمًا كَفَرُوْا بَعْدَ اِيْمَانِهِمْ وَ شَهِدُوْآ اَنَّ الرَّسُوْلَ حَقٌّ وَّ جَآئَهُمُ الْبَيِّنَاتُ، وَاللهُ لاَ يَهْدِىْ الْقَوْمَ الظَّالِمِيْنَ. اُولٰۤئِكَ جَزَآوٴُهُمْ اَنَّ عَلَيْهِمْ لَعْنَةَ اللهِ وَالْمَلَآئِكَةِ وَالنَّاسِ اَجْمَعِيْنَ.

‘How shall Allah guide a people who disbelieved after their believing and (after) they had borne witness that the Apostle was true and clear arguments had come to them; and Allah does not guide the unjust people. (As for) these, their reward is that upon them is the curse of Allah and the angels and of men, all together.’
(Surah Ale Imran, 3:86-87)

c) Disbelievers from the nation of Aad

وَ اُتْبِعُوْا فِىْ هَاذِهِ الدُّنْيَا لَعْنَةً وَّ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ، اَلَآ اِنَّ عَادًا كَفَرُوْا رَبَّهُمْ، اَلاَ بُعْدًا لِّعَادٍ قَوْمِ هُوْدٍ

‘And they were overtaken by curse in this world and on the resurrection day; now surely Aad disbelieved in their Lord; now surely, away with Aad, the people of Hud.’
(Surah Hud, 11:60)

d) Disbelievers from the nation of Firaun

وَ اُتْبِعُوْا فِىْ هَاذِهٖ لَعْنَةً وَّ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ، بِئْسَ الرِّفْدُ الْمَرْفُوْدُ

‘And they are overtaken by curse in this (world), and on the resurrection day, evil the gift which shall be given.’
(Surah Hud, 11:99)

وَ اَتْبَعْنَاهُمْ فِىْ هَاذِهِ الدُّنْيَا لَعْنَةً، وَ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ هُمْ مِّنَ الْمَقْبُوْحِيْنَ

And We caused a curse to follow them in this world, and on the day of resurrection they shall be of those made to appear hideous.
(Surah Qasas, 28:42)

e) Disbelievers from Bani Israel

وَ قَالُوْا قُلُوْبُنَا غُلْفٌ، بَلْ لَّعَنَهُمُ اللهُ بِكُفْرِهِمْ فَقَلِيْلاً مَّا يُؤْمِنُوْنَ. وَ لَمَّا جَآءَ هُمْ كِتَابٌ مِّنْ عِنْدِ اللهِ مُصَدِّقٌ لِّمَا مَعَهُمْ، وَ كَانُوْا مِنْ قَبْلُ يَسْتَفْتِحُوْنَ عَلَى الَّذِيْنَ كَفَرُوْا، فَلَمَّا جَآءَ هُمْ مَّا عَرَفُوْا كَفَرُوْا بِهٖ ز فَلَعْنَةُ اللهِ عَلَى الْكَافِرِيْنَ.

‘And they say: Our hearts are covered. Nay, Allah has cursed them on account of their disbelief; so little it is that they believe. And when there came to them a Book from Allah verifying that which they have, and aforetime they used to pray for victory against those who disbelieve, but when there came to them (Prophet) that which they did not recognize, they disbelieved in him; so Allah’s curse is on the unbelievers.’
(Surah Baqarah, 2: 88-89)

فَبِمَا نَقْضِهِمْ مِّيْثَاقَهُمْ لَعَنَّاهُمْ وَ جَعَلْنَا قُلُوْبَهُمْ قَاسِيَةً، يُحَرِّفُوْنَ الْكَلِمَ عَنْ مَّوَاضِعِهٖ، وَ نَسُوْا حَظًّا مِّمَّا ذُكِّرُوْا بِهٖ، وَلاَ تَزَالُ تَطَّلِعُ عَلٰيخَآئِنَةٍ مِّنْهُمْ اِلاَّ قَلِيْلاً مِّنْهُمْ فَاعْفُ عَنْهُمْ وَاصْفَحْ، اِنَّ اللهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُحْسِنِيْنَ

‘But on account of their breaking their covenant We cursed them and made their hearts hard; they altered the words from their places and they neglected a portion of what they were reminded of; and you shall always discover treachery in them excepting a few of them; so pardon them and turn away; surely Allah loves those who do good (to others).’
(Surah Maidah, 5:13)

قُلْ هَلْ اُنَبِّئُكُمْ بِشَرٍ مِّنْ ذٰلِكَ مَثُوْبَةً عِنْدَ اللهِ، مَنْ لَّعَنَهُ اللهُ وَ غَضِبَ عَلَيْهِ وَ جَعَلَ مِنْهُمُ الْقِرَدَةَ وَالْخَنَازِيْرَ وَ عَبَدَ الطَّاغُوْتَ، اُولٰۤئِكَ شَرٌّمَّكَانًا وَّ اَضَلُّ عَنْ سَوَآءِ السَّبِيْلِ

‘Say: Shall I inform you of (him who is) worse than this in retribution from Allah? (Worse is he) whom Allah has cursed and brought His wrath upon, and of whom He made apes and swine, and he who served the Shaitan; these are worse in place and more erring from the straight path.’
(Surah Maidah, 5:60)

لُعِنَ الَّذِيْنَ كَفَرُوْا مِنْم بَنِىْٓ اِسْرَآئِيْلَ عَلٰيلِسَانِ دَاودَ وَ عِيْسَى ابْنِ مَرْيَمَ، ذٰلِكَ بِمَا عَصَوْا وَّ كَانُوْا يَعْتَدُوْنَ

‘Those who disbelieved from among the children of Israel were cursed by the tongue of Dawood and Isa, son of Marium; this was because they disobeyed and used to exceed the limit.’
(Surah Maidah, 5:78)

وَ اُتْبِعُوْا فِىْ هَاذِهٖ لَعْنَةً وَّ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ، بِئْسَ الرِّفْدُ الْمَرْفُوْدُ

‘And they are overtaken by curse in this (world), and on the resurrection day, evil the gift which shall be given.’
(Surah Hud, 11:99)

وَ اَتْبَعْنَاهُمْ فِىْ هَاذِهِ الدُّنْيَا لَعْنَةً، وَ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ هُمْ مِّنَ الْمَقْبُوْحِيْنَ

‘And We caused a curse to follow them in this world, and on the day of resurrection they shall be of those made to appear hideous.’
(Surah Qasas, 28:42)

f) Disbelievers from the People of the Book (Ahle Kitab)

وَ لَمَّا جَآءَ هُمْ كِتَابٌ مِّنْ عِنْدِ اللهِ مُصَدِّقٌ لِّمَا مَعَهُمْ، وَ كَانُوْا مِنْ قَبْلُ يَسْتَفْتِحُوْنَ عَلَى الَّذِيْنَ كَفَرُوْا، فَلَمَّا جَآءَ هُمْ مَّا عَرَفُوْا كَفَرُوْا بِهٖ ز فَلَعْنَةُ اللهِ عَلَى الْكَافِرِيْنَ

‘And when there came to them a Book from Allah verifying that which they have, and aforetime they used to pray for victory against those who disbelieve, but when there came to them (Prophet) that which they did not recognize, they disbelieved in him; so Allah’s curse is on the unbelievers.’
(Surah Baqarah, 2:89)

مِنَ الَّذِيْنَ هَادُوْا يُحَرِّفُوْنَ الْكَلِمَ عَنْ مَّوَاضِعِهٖ وَ يَقُوْلُوْنَ سَمِعْنَا وَ عَصَيْنَا وَاسْمَعْ غَيْرَ مُسْمَعٍ وَّرَاعِنَا لَيًّام بِاَلْسِنَتِهِمْ وَطَعْنًا فِى الدِّيْنِ، وَلَوْ اَنَّهُمْ قَالُوْا سَمِعْنَا وَ اَطَعْنَا وَاسْمَعْ وَانْظُرْنَا لَكَانَ خَيْرًا لَّهُمْ وَ اَقْوَمَ، وَ لٰكنْ لَّعَنَهُمُ اللهُ بِكُفْرِهِمْ فَلاَ يُؤْمِنُوْنَ اِلاَّ قَلِيْلاً. يَآاَيُّهَا الَّذِيْنَ اُوْتُوْا الْكِتَابَ اٰمِنُوْا بِمَا نَزَّلْنَا مُصَدِّقًا لِّمَا مَعَكُمْ مِّنْ قَبْلِ اَنْ نَّطْمِسَ وُجُوْهًا فَنَرُدَّهَا عَلٰى اَدْبَارِهَآ اَوْ نَلْعَنَهُمْ كَمَا لَعَنَّآ اَصْحَابَ السَّبْتِ، وَكَانَ اَمْرُ اللهِ مَفْعُوْلاً.

‘Of those who are Jews (there are those who) alter words from their places and say: We have heard and we disobey and: Hear, may you not be made to hear! and: Raina, distorting (the word) with their tongues and taunting about religion; and if they had said (instead): We have heard and we obey, and hearken, and Unzurna it would have been better for them and more upright; but Allah has cursed them on account of their unbelief, so they do not believe but a little. O you who have been given the Book! believe that which We have revealed, verifying what you have, before We alter faces then turn them on their backs, or curse them as We cursed the violators of the Sabbath, and the command of Allah shall be executed.’
(Surah Nisa, 4:46-47)

وَ قَالَتِ الْيَهُوْدُ يَدُ اللهِ مَغْلُوْلَةٌ، غُلَّتْ اَيْدِيْهِمْ وَلُعِنُوْا بِمَا قَالُوْا م بَلْ يَدَاهُ مَبْسُوْطَتَانِ، يُنْفِقُ كَيْفَ يَشَآءُ، وَلَيَزِيْدَنَّ كَثِيْرًا مِّنْهُمْ مَّآ اُنْزِلَ اِلَيْكَ مِنْ رَّبِّكَ طُغْيَانًا وَّ كُفْرًا، وَاَلْقَيْنَا بَيْنَهُمُ الْعَدَاوَةَ وَالْبَغَضَآءَ اِلٰى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ، كُلَّمَآ اَوْقَدُوْا نَارًا لِّلْحَرْبِ اَطْفَاَهَا اللهُ، وَ يَسْعَوْنَ فِى الْاَرْضِ فَسَادًا، وَاللهُ لاَ يُحِبُّ الْمُفْسِدِيْنَ.

‘And the Jews say: The hand of Allah is tied up! Their hands shall be shackled and they shall be cursed for what they say. Nay, both His hands are spread out, He expends as He pleases; and what has been revealed to you from your Lord will certainly make many of them increase in inordinacy and unbelief; and We have put enmity and hatred among them till the day of resurrection; whenever they kindle a fire for war Allah puts it out, and they strive to make mischief in the land; and Allah does not love the mischief-makers.’
(Surah Maidah, 5:64)

3. Curse on the Polytheists

وَّ يُعَذِّبَ الْمُنَافِقِيْنَ وَ الْمُنَافِقَاتِ وَ الْمُشْرِكِيْنَ وَ الْمُشْرِكَاتِ الظَّآنِّيْنَ بِاللهِ ظَنَّ السَّوْءِ، عَلَيْهِمْ دَآئِرَةُ السَّوْءِ، وَ غَضِبَ اللهُ عَلَيْهِمْ وَ لَعَنَهُمْ وَ اَعَدَّ لَهُمْ جَهَنَّمَ، وَ سَآئَتْ مَصِيْرًا

‘And (that) He may punish the hypocritical men and the hypocritical women, and the polytheistic men and the polytheistic women, the entertainers of evil thoughts about Allah. On them is the evil turn, and Allah is wroth with them and has cursed them and prepared hell for them, and evil is the resort.’
(Surah Fath, 48:6)

4. Curses on different groups among the People of the Book (Ahle Kitab)

a) Companions of Sabt

قُلْ هَلْ اُنَبِّئُكُمْ بِشَرٍ مِّنْ ذٰلِكَ مَثُوْبَةً عِنْدَ اللهِ، مَنْ لَّعَنَهُ اللهُ وَ غَضِبَ عَلَيْهِ وَ جَعَلَ مِنْهُمُ الْقِرَدَةَ وَالْخَنَازِيْرَ وَ عَبَدَ الطَّاغُوْتَ، اُولٰۤئِكَ شَرٌّمَّكَانًا وَّ اَضَلُّ عَنْ سَوَآءِ السَّبِيْلِ

‘Say: Shall I inform you of (him who is) worse than this in retribution from Allah? (Worse is he) whom Allah has cursed and brought His wrath upon, and of whom He made apes and swine, and he who served the Shaitan; these are worse in place and more erring from the straight path.’
(Surah Maidah, 5:60)

b) Those who believe that the hands of Allah are tied

وَ قَالَتِ الْيَهُوْدُ يَدُ اللهِ مَغْلُوْلَةٌ، غُلَّتْ اَيْدِيْهِمْ وَلُعِنُوْا بِمَا قَالُوْا م بَلْ يَدَاهُ مَبْسُوْطَتَانِ، يُنْفِقُ كَيْفَ يَشَآءُ، وَلَيَزِيْدَنَّ كَثِيْرًا مِّنْهُمْ مَّآ اُنْزِلَ اِلَيْكَ مِنْ رَّبِّكَ طُغْيَانًا وَّ كُفْرًا، وَاَلْقَيْنَا بَيْنَهُمُ الْعَدَاوَةَ وَالْبَغَضَآءَ اِلٰى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ، كُلَّمَآ اَوْقَدُوْا نَارًا لِّلْحَرْبِ اَطْفَاَهَا اللهُ، وَ يَسْعَوْنَ فِى الْاَرْضِ فَسَادًا، وَاللهُ لاَ يُحِبُّ الْمُفْسِدِيْنَ

‘And the Jews say: The hand of Allah is tied up! Their hands shall be shackled and they shall be cursed for what they say. Nay, both His hands are spread out, He expends as He pleases; and what has been revealed to you from your Lord will certainly make many of them increase in inordinacy and unbelief; and We have put enmity and hatred among them till the day of resurrection; whenever they kindle a fire for war Allah puts it out, and they strive to make mischief in the land; and Allah does not love the mischief-makers.’
(Surah Maidah, 5:64)

5. Curse on the Hypocrites

وَعَدَ اللهُ الْمُنَافِقِيْنَ وَالْمُنَافِقَاتِ وَالْكُفَّارَ نَارَ جَهَنَّمَ خَالِدِيْنَ فِيْهَا، هِىَ حَسْبُهُمْ، وَ لَعَنَهُمُ اللهُ، وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ مُّقِيْمٌ

‘Allah has promised the hypocritical men and the hypocritical women and the unbelievers the fire of hell to abide therein; it is enough for them; and Allah has cursed them and they shall have lasting punishment.’
(Surah Taubah, 9:68)

وَّ يُعَذِّبَ الْمُنَافِقِيْنَ وَ الْمُنَافِقَاتِ وَ الْمُشْرِكِيْنَ وَ الْمُشْرِكَاتِ الظَّآنِّيْنَ بِاللهِ ظَنَّ السَّوْءِ، عَلَيْهِمْ دَآئِرَةُ السَّوْءِ، وَ غَضِبَ اللهُ عَلَيْهِمْ وَ لَعَنَهُمْ وَ اَعَدَّ لَهُمْ جَهَنَّمَ، وَ سَآئَتْ مَصِيْرًا

‘And (that) He may punish the hypocritical men and the hypocritical women, and the polytheistic men and the polytheistic women, the entertainers of evil thoughts about Allah. On them is the evil turn, and Allah is wroth with them and has cursed them and prepared hell for them, and evil is the resort.’
(Surah Fath, 48:6)

لَئِنْ لَّمْ يَنْتَهِ الْمُنَافِقُوْنَ وَ الَّذِيْنَ فِىْ قُلُوْبِهِمْ مَّرَضٌ وَّ الْمُرْجِفُوْنَ فِى الْمَدِيْنَةِ لَنُغْرِيَنَّكَ بِهِمْ ثُمَّ لاَ يُجَاوِرُوْنَكَ فِيْهَآ اِلاَّ قَلِيْلاً. مَّلْعُوْنِيْنَ، اَيْنَمَا ثُقِفُوْآ اُخِذُوْا وَ قُتِّلُوْا تَقْتِيْلاً.

‘If the hypocrites and those in whose hearts is a disease and the agitators in the city do not desist, We shall most certainly set you over them, then they shall not be your neighbors in it but for a little while; Cursed: wherever they are found they shall be seized and murdered, a (horrible) murdering.’
(Surah Ahzab, 33:60-61)

The Accursed Tree

وَ اِذْ قُلْنَا لَكَ اِنَّ رَبَّكَ اَحَاطَ بِالنَّاسِ، وََمَا جَعَلْنَا الرُّءْ يَا الَّتِىْٓ اَرَيْنَاكَ اِلاَّ فِتْنَةً لِّلنَّاسِ وَالشَّجَرَةَ الْمَلْعُوْنَةَ فِى الْقُرْاٰنِ، وَ نُخَوِّفُهُمْ، فَمَا يَزِيْدُهُمْ اِلاَّ طُغْيَانًا كَبِيْرًا

‘And when We said to you: Surely your Lord encompasses men; and We did not make the vision which We showed you but a trial for men and the cursed tree in the Quran as well; and We cause them to fear, but it only adds to their great inordinacy.’
(Surah Bani Israel, 17:60)

As per the reliable traditions of the Ahle Sunnah and the Shias, ‘the accursed tree’ refers to Bani Ummayah. In this regard, traditions from Sunni and Shia sources are given below:

• Ibne Jurair Tabari writes in his Tafseer under the aforesaid verse: Sahl Ibne Saad narrated that Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) saw Bani Falan (Bani Ummayah) in his dream. They were jumping on his mimbar (pulpit) like monkeys. He (s.a.w.a.) felt very sorrowful. After this, until his last breath, nobody saw a smile on the face of Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.). At that time the verse, وََمَا جَعَلْنَا الرُّءْ يَا الَّتِىْٓ اَرَيْنَاكَ اِلاَّ فِتْنَةً لِّلنَّاسِ… ‘…and We did not make the vision which We showed you but a trial for men..’ was revealed.
(Tafseer-e-Tabari, vol. 15, pg. 141)

• Qurtabi writes in his Tafseer under the aforesaid verse that Sahl Ibne Saad narrated that Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) saw Bani Ummayah in his dream, jumping on his mimbar (pulpit) like monkeys. This made him very sorrowful. After this, until his last breath, he did not smile. This verse describes the period of the rule of Bani Ummayah, which was full of great corruption and a test for the nation.
(Tafseer-e-Qurtabi, vol. 10, pg. 254)

• Yunus Ibne Abdul Rahman Ibne Asal enquired from Imam (a.s.) about the verse, وََمَا جَعَلْنَا الرُّءْ يَا الَّتِىْٓ اَرَيْنَاكَ اِلاَّ فِتْنَةً لِّلنَّاسِ… ‘…and We did not make the vision which We showed you but a trial for men..’ He (a.s.) replied: Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) saw a dream in which he saw Bani Ummayah climbing his pulpit. Whoever from them climbed the pulpit, the path to reach Allah was closed. He (s.a.w.a.) was at pain to see this in his dream. He (s.a.w.a.) got up in sorrow. He (s.a.w.a.) had seen twelve persons from Bani Ummayah in his dream. At that time, Jibrael came down with the verse.
(Tafseer-e-Ayyashi, vol.2, pg. 298)

• It is narrated from Imam Mohammad Baqir (a.s.) that people are perplexed about the verse وََمَا جَعَلْنَا الرُّءْ يَا الَّتِىْٓ اَرَيْنَاكَ اِلاَّ فِتْنَةً لِّلنَّاسِ… ‘…and We did not make the vision which We showed you but a trial for men…’ ‘The Accursed tree’ mentioned in the Holy Quran refers to Bani Ummayah.
(Tafseer-e-Ayyashi, vol.2, pg. 298)

6. A General Curse (No restrictions about its being Islamic or Unislamic)

Those who hurt the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.)

اِنَّ الَّذِيْنَ يُؤْذُوْنَ اللهَ وَرَسُوْلَه لَعَنَهُمُ اللهُ فِى الدُّنْيَا وَ الْاٰخِرَةِ وَ اَعَدَّ لَهُمْ عَذَابًا مُّهِيْنًا

‘Surely (as for) those who speak evil things of Allah and His Apostle, Allah has cursed them in this world and the here after, and He has prepared for them a chastisement bringing disgrace.’
(Surah Ahzab, 33:57)

Hurting Ameerul Momeneen (a.s.) is hurting the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.)

• Abu Yala narrates from Saad who said: “I, along with two others were sitting in the Masjid and were complaining about Hazrat Ali (a.s.). We saw signs of anger on the face of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.). I sought refugee in Allah from the anger of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.). He (s.a.w.a.) said: ‘What is your problem? Whoever hurts Ali (a.s.), has hurt me.’”
(Musnad Ibne Abi Yala, vol.2, pg. 109, Al Haithami – Majmau Zawaid, Chp – Virtues of Ali Ibne Abi Talib (a.s.), vol. 9, pg. 129)

• Haakim narrates from Amr Ibne Shas Aslami in his Mustadarak: “I went to Yemen with Ali (a.s.). During the journey, Ali (a.s.) treated me in such a manner that I felt pained. When we retuned from the journey, I publicly complained about Ali (a.s.) until my complaint reached the ears of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.). That morning, when I reached the Masjid, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) was sitting with his companions. As soon as he (s.a.w.a.) saw me, he looked at me angrily until I sat down . Then he (s.a.w.a.) said: ‘O Amr! By Allah, you have hurt me.’ I said: ‘I seek refuge in Allah that I should hurt you.’ He (s.a.w.a.) said: ‘Yes, Whoever hurts Ali, hurts me.’”

Haakim writes regarding this tradition that it is sahih (correct). However, Bukhari and Muslim have not recorded it. Zahabi has recorded this tradition as a sahih tradition.
(Mustadarak-e-Haakim, Kitabo Marefate Ashaab, H.N. 4619, Musnad-e-Ahmad,3/483, Al Haithami – Majmau Zawaid, vol. 9, pg. 129)

Ibne Hubaan has mentioned this in his Sahih.
(Sahih Ibne Hubaan, vol.6, pg. 267)

After narrating this tradition, Haithami writes: Ahmad Watabrani has narrated this briefly. Bazaaz has narrated it even more briefly. The chains of narrators mentioned by Ahmad are reliable.
(Majmau Zawaid, vol. 9, pg. 129)

Amr Ibne Shas narrates: The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) said to me, “You have certainly hurt me.”

I replied, “O Prophet of Allah (s.a.w.a.), I don’t wish to hurt you.” He (s.a.w.a.) said, “Whoever hurts Ali (a.s.), hurts me.”
(Mustadarak-e-Haakim, vol. 3, pg. 122)

Hurting Janabe Fatema Zahra (s.a.) is hurting the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.)

اِنَّمَا فَاطِمَةُ بَضْعَةٌ مِّنِّيْ يُؤْذِيْنِيْ مَا آذَاهَا-

Certainly Fatema is a part of me. Whosoever hurts her hurts me too.
(Sahih Muslim, H.N. 4483, Sunan-e-Tirmizi, vol.2, pg. 319)

فَاطِمَةُ بَضْعَةٌ مِنِّيْ يُرْبِيَنِيْ مَا اَرْاَبَهَا وَ يُوْذِيْنِيْ مَا آذَاهَا-

Fatema is a part of me. Whatever grieves her grieves me too, and whosoever hurts her hurts me too.
(Musnad-e-Ahmad Ibne Hanbal, vol.4, pg. 328, Hilyatul Awliya, vol. 2, pg. 40)

اِنَّمَا فَاطِمَةُ بَضْعَةٌ مِّنِّيْ يُؤْذِيْنِيْ مَا آذَاهَا وَ يَنْصِبَنِيْ مَا اَنْصَبَهَا-

Certainly, Fatema is a part of me. Whosoever hurts her hurts me too. Whatever saddens her saddens me too.
(Musnad-e-Ahmad Ibne Hanbal, vol.4, pg. 5, Mustadarak-e-Haakim Neeshaburi, vol. 3, pg. 159, Sunan-e-Tirmizi, vol.2, pg. 319)

Liars

فَمَنْ حَآجَّكَ فِيْهِ مِنْم بَعْدِ مَا جَآءَ كَ مِنَ الْعِلْمِ فَقُلْ تَعَالَوْا نَدْعُ اَبْنَآءَ نَا وَ اَبْنَآءَ كُمْ وَ نِسَآءَ نَا وَ نِسَآءَ كُمْ وَ اَنْفُسَنَا وَ اَنْفُسَكُمْ قف ثُمَّ نَبْتَهِلْ فَنَجْعَلْ لَّعْنَتَ اللهِ عَلَى الْكَاذِبِيْنَ

‘But whoever disputes with you in this matter after what has come to you of knowledge, then say: Come let us call our sons and your sons and our women and your women and our near people and your near people, then let us be earnest in prayer, and pray for the curse of Allah on the liars.’
(Surah Ale Imran, 3:61)

Killing Intentionally

وَمَنْ يَّقْتُلْ مُؤْمِنًا مُّتَعَمِّدًا فَجَزَآوٴُه جَهَنَّمُ خَالِدًا فِيْهَا وَ غَضِبَ اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَ لَعَنَه وَ اَعَدَّلَه عَذَابًا عَظِيْمًا

‘And whoever kills a believer intentionally, his punishment is hell; he shall abide in it, and Allah will send His wrath on him and curse him and prepare for him a painful chastisement.’
(Surah Nisa, 4:93)

Unjust

يَوْمَ لاَ يَنْفَعُ الظَّالِمِيْنَ مَعْذِرَتُهُمْ وَ لَهُمُ اللَّعْنَةُ وَ لَهُمْ سُوْٓءُ الدَّارِ

‘The day on which their excuse shall not benefit the unjust, and for them is curse and for them is the evil abode.’
(Surah Momin, 40:52)

وَنَادٰى اَصْحَابُ الْجَنَّةِ اَضْحَابُ النَّارِ اَنْ قَدْ وَجَدْنَا مَا وَعَدَنَا ربُّنَا حَقًّا فَهَلْ وَجَدْتُّمْ مَّا وَعَدَ رَبُّكُمْ حَقًّا قَالُوْا نَعَمْ فَاَذَّنَ مُؤَذِّنٌ بَيْنَهُمْ اَنْ لَّعْنَةُ اللهِ عَلَى الظَّالِمِيْنَ

‘And the dwellers of the garden will call out to the inmates of the fire: Surely we have found what our Lord promised us to be true; have you too found what your Lord promised to be true? They will say: Yes. Then a crier will cry out among them that the curse of Allah is on the unjust.’
(Surah Aaraf, 7:44)

وَ مَنْ اَظْلَمُ مِمَّنِ افْتَرٰى عَلَى اللهِ كَذِبًا، اُولٰۤئِكَ يُعْرَضُوْنَ عَلٰيرَبِّهِمْ وَ يَقُوْلُ الْاَشْهَادُ هَآوٴُلَآءِ الَّذِيْنَ كَذَبُوْا عَلٰيرَبِّهِمْ، اَلاَ لَعْنَةُ اللهِ عَلَى الظَّالِمِيْنَ

‘And who is more unjust than he who forges a lie against Allah? These shall be brought before their Lord, and the witnesses shall say: These are they who lied against their Lord. Now surely the curse of Allah is on the unjust.’
(Surah Hud, 11:18)

Accusing Chaste Women

وَالْخَامِسَةُ اَنَّ لَعْنَتَ اللهِ عَلَيْهِ اِنْ كَانَ مِنَ الْكَاذِبِيْنَ

‘And the fifth (time) that the curse of Allah be on him if he is one of the liars.’
(Surah Noor, 24:7)

اِنَّ الَّذِيْنَ يَرْمُوْنَ الْمُحْصَنَاتِ الْغَالفِلَاتِ الْمُؤْمِنَاتِ لُعِنُوْا فِى الدُّنْيَا وَالْاٰخِرَةِ ص وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ عَظِيْمٌ

‘Surely those who accuse chaste believing women, unaware (of the evil), are cursed in this world and the hereafter, and they shall have a grievous chastisement.’
(Surah Noor, 24:23)

Breakers of the Covenant

وَالَّذِيْنَ يَنْقُضُوْنَ عَهْدَ اللهِ مِنْم بَعْدِ مِيْثَاقِهٖ وَ يَقْطَعُوْنَ مَآ اَمْرَاللهُ بِهٖٓ اَنْ يُّوْصَلَ وَ يُفْسِدُوْنَ فِى الْاَرْضِ، اُولٰۤئِكَ لَهُمُ اللَّعْنَةُ وَلَهُمْ سُوْٓءُ الدَّارِ

‘And those who break the covenant of Allah after its confirmation and cut asunder that which Allah has ordered to be joined and make mischief in the land; (as for) those, upon them shall be curse and they shall have the evil (issue) of the abode.’
(Surah Raad, 13:25)

One who forges a lie against Allah

وَ مَنْ اَظْلَمُ مِمَّنِ افْتَرٰى عَلَى اللهِ كَذِبًا، اُولٰۤئِكَ يُعْرَضُوْنَ عَلٰيرَبِّهِمْ وَ يَقُوْلُ الْاَشْهَادُ هَآوٴُلَآءِ الَّذِيْنَ كَذَبُوْا عَلٰيرَبِّهِمْ، اَلاَ لَعْنَةُ اللهِ عَلَى الظَّالِمِيْنَ

‘And who is more unjust than he who forges a lie against Allah? These shall be brought before their Lord, and the witnesses shall say: These are they who lied against their Lord. Now surely the curse of Allah is on the unjust.’
(Surah Hud, 11:18)

One who conceals the clear proofs of Allah

اِنَّ الَّذِيْنَ يَكْتُمُوْنَ مَآ اَنْزَلْنَا مِنَ الْبَيِّنَاتِ وَالْهُدٰى مِنْم بَعْدِ مَا بَيَّنَّاهُ لِلنَّاسِ فِى الْكِتَابِ، اُولٰۤئِكَ يَلْعَنُهُمُ اللهُ وَ يَلْعَنُهُمُ اللَّاعِنُوْنَ

‘Surely those who conceal the clear proofs and the guidance that We revealed after We made it clear in the Book for men, these it is whom Allah shall curse, and those who curse shall curse them (too).’
(Surah Baqarah, 2:159)

Those who hold the Jews superior to the Believers

اَلَمْ تَرَ اِلَى الَّذِيْنَ اُوْتُوْا نَصِيْبًا مِّنَ الْكِتَابِ يُؤْمِنُوْنَ بِالْجِبْتِ وَالطَّاغُوْتِ وَ يَقُوْلُوْنَ لِلَّذِيْنَ كَفَرُوْا هَآوٴُلَآءِ اَهْدٰى مِنَ الَّذِيْنَ اٰمَنُوْا سَبِيْلاً. اُولٰۤئِكَ الَّذِيْنَ لَعَنَهُمُ اللهُ، وَمَنْ يَّلْعَنِ اللهُ فَلَنْ تَجِدَ لَه نَصِيْرًا.

‘Have you not seen those to whom a portion of the Book has been given? They believe in idols and false deities and say of those who disbelieve: These are better guided in the path than those who believe. Those are they whom Allah has cursed, and whomever Allah curses you shall not find any helper for him.’
(Surah Nisa, 4:51-52)

Those who spread mischief and cut off relations of Kin

فَهَلْ عَسَيْتُمْ اِنْ تَوَلَّيْتُمْ اَنْ تُفْسِدُوْا فِىْ الْاَرْضِ وَ تُقَطِّعُوْآ اَرْحَامَكُمْ. اُولٰۤئِكَ الَّذِيْنَ لَعَنَهُمُ اللهُ فَاَصَمَّهُمْ وَ اَعْمٰىٓ اَبْصَارَهُمْ.

‘But if you held command, you were sure to make mischief in the land and cut off the ties of kinship! Those it is whom Allah has cursed so He has made them deaf and blinded their eyes.’
(Surah Mohammad, 47:22-23)

Lanat and the traditions of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.)

1. Curse on the Disbelievers

Ayesha narrates from the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) that he (s.a.w.a.) said: The curse of Allah be on Shaiba Ibne Rabiyyah, Utaibah Ibne Rabiyyah and Ummayah Ibne Khalaf who removed us from our land and drove us to the valley.
(Sahih Bukhari, Kitabo Babe Kirahate An-Nabi an-T’ara al-Mudirah, vol.3, pg. 30)

Tirmizi has narrated a tradition from Ibne Umar in his Sunan that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) said on the day of Ohad: O Allah! Curse Abu Sufyan, Haaris Ibne Hesham and Safwaan Ibne Ummayah.
(Sunan-e-Tirmizi, vol.5, pg. 227)

Then he wrote: This tradition is Sahih and Ghareeb.

Muslim narrated from Khefaf Ibne Imaad that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) raised his head from ruku and said: Allah forgive Ghafaar! Allah protect Aslam! Usba has disobeyed Allah and the Messenger. Curse be on Bani Hayan, Ra’la and Zakwaan. Then the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) went in to prostration.
(Sahih Muslim, vol.1, pg. 470)

2. Curse on Hypocrities

Tabarani has quoted from Nasr Ibne Aasim Laisi who has quoted from his father who said: I went to the Masjid. At that time I heard people saying that we seek refuge from the anger of Allah and His Messenger. I asked them about seeking refuge. They said: The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) was giving Khutba and at that time a person left the Masjid with his son. At that moment the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) said: O Allah! Curse the one going ahead and the one following… Regret for the nation concerning so and so.
(Mojamul Kabeer of Tabarani, vol. 17, pg. 176, Al Ahadees Al Mukkhtara, vol.8, pg. 180)

Haithami after narrating this writes: Tabarani has narrated this and all the narrators are reliable and trustworthy.
(Majmau Zawaid, vol.5, pg. 242)

Ahmad has quoted a tradition in his Musnad from Abdullah Ibne Zubair that he was reclining on the wall of the Holy Kaaba and was narrating this tradition: I Swear by the Lord of this Kaaba, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) has cursed this person and the child which will be born from his loins.

The writer of the book writes: This tradition is reliable and the narrators of this tradition are the narrators of Muslim and Bukhari.

Al Sindi says: ‘this person’ referred to by the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) is ‘Hakam’ and the child refers to ‘Marwan’ … Allah knows the Best.
(Musnad-e-Ahmad, vol.26, pg. 51)

Haithami has recorded this tradition in Majmau Zawaid and he writes: This tradition has been recorded by Ahmad, Bazzar and Tabarani. And Ahmad’s narrators are correct.
(Majmau Zawaid, vol.5, pg. 241)

Bazzar has recorded a tradition from Abdullah Albahi, a slave of Zubair, who said: I was in the Masjid when Marwan was giving a sermon. Abdul Rahman Ibne Abu Bakr tauntingly said: Abu Bakr never appointed anybody from his family as a Caliph. At this Marwan retorted: Are you not the one regarding whom the verse, وَ الَّذِىْ قَالَ لِوَالِدَيْهِ اُفٍّ لَّكُمَآ ‘and the one who said ‘Uff’ to his parents’ was revealed?

At that time Abdul Rahman replied: You are lying! However the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) has cursed your father.
(Musnad-e-Bazzar, vol.6, pg. 241)

Haithami writes in Majmau Zawaid that Bazzar has recorded this tradition and this tradition is Hasan (good).
(Majmau Zawaid, vol.5, pg. 241)

Haakim has recorded this tradition from Abdullah Ibne Zubair in his Mustadarak al Sahihain: Certainly the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) has cursed Hakam and his son. Then he says: The chain of narrators of this tradition is Sahih. However, Muslim and Bukhari have not recorded it.
(Mustadarak al Sahihain, vol.4, pg. 481)

Bazzar has recorded a tradition from Safina that said that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) was sitting when a camel rider passed by him. One person was leading the camel and another was following it. The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) said: Allah’s curse be on the rider, the leader leading the camel and the follower.
(Musnad-e-Bazzar, vol.9, pg. 286)

Haithami writes in Majmau Zawaid that Bazzar has recorded this tradition and the narrators of this tradition are trustworthy and reliable.
(Majmau Zawaid, vol.1, pg. 113)

The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) saw Abu Sufyan riding a camel, his son, Yazid, leading the camel, and Muawiya following the camel. He (s.a.w.a.) said: Allah’s curse be on the rider, the leader leading the camel and the follower.
(Tarikh-e-Tabari, vol. 11, pg. 357, Published in 284 AH, Tarikhe-e-Abul Fida, vol. 2, pg. 57, Published in 238 AH, Kitabo Siffin Nasr, pg. 247, Misr, Tazkeratul Khwaas by Sibt Ibne Jauzi, pg. 115)

3. General Curse

Those who make Haram of Allah Halal

Ibne Hubaan has recorded a tradition from the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) in his Sahih that he (s.a.w.a.) said: I curse six groups of people who have been cursed by Allah and the Prophets (a.s.)… The one who makes the prohibitions of Allah allowed concerning my progeny. My curse is on the one who leaves my Sunnat.
(Sahih Ibne Hubaan, vol.5, pg. 373)

Men who imitate women and women who imitate the men

Ibne Abbas narrates that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) said: Curse be on those men who imitate women in their dressing and wearing make-up. He (s.a.w.a.) said that they should be driven out of the houses.
(Sahih Bukhari, HN. 5885)

One who charges interest

The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) said: Allah’s curse is on the one who takes interest, the one who does waqalat of it, those who write the accounts of it, and the witnesses of it.
(Sahih Muslim, Al Musaqaat, Babo La’ne Akale Riba wa Mukala, HN. 1598, Sunan-e-Tirmizi, Al Boyu. Babo ma jaa fi Akale Al Riba, HN. 1206, Sunan-e-Abi Dawood, Al Boyu. Babo fi Akale Al Riba wa Mukala, HN. 3333 )

Imitators of the Nation of Hazrat Lut (a.s.)

The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) said: Allah’s curse be on the person who acts like the nation of Hazrat Lut (a.s.)
(Musnad-e-Ahmad, vol.1, pg. 309, Mustadarak-e-Haakim, vol.4, pg. 356, Sahih Al Targeeb, 2421 )

Intoxicants

Haakim has recorded a tradition in his Mustadarak quoting Ibn Abbas saying: I heard the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) say, “Jibrael came to me said, ‘O Mohammad! Certainly, Allah curses alcohol, one who squeezes grapes for alcohol, one who gives alcohol, one who carries alcohol, one who buys alcohol, one who sells alcohol, one who offers alcohol and one who drinks alcohol.’”
(Mustadarak-e-Haakim, Kitabul Ashraba, HN. 7229)

After this he writes that the chain of narrators of this tradition is Sahih.

Haafez Munzari writes in his book Al Rageeb Wal Raheeb that this tradition is quoted by Ibne Abbas. This tradition has been recorded by Ahmad in his Musnad and Ibne Hubaan in his Sahih. Haakim has accepted its chain of narrators as Sahih.
(Sahih Bukhari, Kitabo Said, Babo Ma Yakraho mial Masalah, vol.2, pg. 829)

Curse on the one who amputates the limbs of animals

Bukhari has recorded a tradition from Ibne Umar that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) said: Curse be on the one amputates the limbs of the animals.
(Sharh-e-Nahjul Balagah of Ibne Abil Hadid, 6/52)

Curse on the ones who did not join the army of Usama

The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) said: Prepare the army of Usama. Allah’s curse be on the one who does not join it and stays away from it.

Differences in areas of Curse

That which differentiates the two sects with regards to cursing is the view point of the Ahle Sunnah that all the companions are just and good-doers. Due to this belief, the scholars of Ahle Sunnah try to justify and substantiate those deeds of the companions which are in direct contrast to the Holy Quran and the Sunnah. They rationalize the deeds of the companions so as to protect their honor.

• Hafiz Muhadith Yusuf Ibne Abdul Barr writes in the preface of his book ‘Al-Isteaab’: ثَبَتَ عَدَالَةُ جَمِيْعِهُمْ ‘All the companions are impeccable.’

• Ibne Aseer, in the preface of his book ‘Usdul Ghabba’, while presenting the importance of recognizing and knowing the narrators of traditions, he writes: وَ الصَّحَابَةُ يُشَارِكُوْنَ فِيْ ذٰلِكَ اِلاَّ الْجَرْحِ وَ التْعَدِيْلِ فَاِنَّهُمْ كُلُّهُمْ عُدُوْلٌ لاَ يَتَطَرِّقُ اِلَيْهِمُ الْجَرْحِ… ‘Whatever has been narrated applies to the companions except their criticism because they are just and they should not be criticized.’
(Ibne Aseer, vol. 1, pg. 3)

• Ibne Hajar writes:

اِعْلَمْ اَنَّ الَّذِيْ اَجْمَعُ عَلَيْهِ اَهْلُ السُّنَّةِ وَ الْجَمَاعَةِ اَنَّه يَجِبُ عَلٰي كُلِّ مُسْلِمٍ تَزْكِيَةٌ جَمِيْعُ الصَّحَابَةِ بِاِثْبَاتِ الْعَدَالَةِ لَهُمْ، وَ الْكَفِّ عَنِ الطَّعَنِ فِيْهِمْ، مَعَ الثَّنَاءِ عَلَيْهِمْ فَقَدْ اَثنٰي اللهَ عَلَيْهِمْ فِيْ كِتَابِه الْعَزِيْزِ-

‘Know that all the Ahle Sunnah wal Jammat are unanimous that it is obligatory on all Muslims to consider all the companions to be just and to purify them, and not to criticize them because Allah has praised them in His Honorable Book.’
(Al Sawaaeq Al Mohreka, pg. 194)

The Scholars and Traditionalists of Ahle Sunnah are unanimous that all the companions are just. Hence, they try to justify the sins, wrong doings, oppression, killings, and so on of the companions. Instead, all the deeds of the companions are remembered as good deeds. They protect them from all types of disparagement. They consider criticism of companions intolerable while the Holy Quran very clearly announces:

وَمِمَّنْ حَوْلَكُم مِّنَ الأَعْرَابِ مُنَافِقُونَ وَمِنْ أَهْلِ الْمَدِينَةِ مَرَدُواْ عَلَى النِّفَاقِ لاَ تَعْلَمُهُمْ نَحْنُ نَعْلَمُهُمْ سَنُعَذِّبُهُم مَّرَّتَيْنِ ثُمَّ يُرَدُّونَ إِلَى عَذَابٍ عَظِيمٍ

‘And from among those who are round about you of the dwellers of the desert there are hypocrites, and from among the people of Medina (also); they are stubborn in hypocrisy; you do not know them; We know them; We will chastise them twice then shall they be turned back to a grievous chastisement.’
(Surah Taubah, 9:101)

Similarly, Holy Quran says:

وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَن يَقُولُ آمَنَّا بِاللّهِ وَبِالْيَوْمِ الآخِرِ وَمَا هُم بِمُؤْمِنِينَ يُخَادِعُونَ اللّهَ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَمَا يَخْدَعُونَ إِلاَّ أَنفُسَهُم وَمَا يَشْعُرُونَ

‘And there are some people who say: We believe in Allah and the last day; and they are not at all believers. They desire to deceive Allah and those who believe, and they deceive only themselves and they do not perceive. …….
(Surah Baqarah, 2:8-9)

وَإِذَا لَقُواْ الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ قَالُواْ آمَنَّا وَإِذَا خَلَوْاْ إِلَى شَيَاطِينِهِمْ قَالُواْ إِنَّا مَعَكْمْ إِنَّمَا نَحْنُ مُسْتَهْزِؤُونَ

‘And when they meet those who believe, they say: We believe; and when they are alone with their Shaitans, they say: Surely we are with you, we were only mocking.’
(Surah Baqarah, 2:14)

وَمِنْهُم مَّنْ عَاهَدَ اللّهَ لَئِنْ آتَانَا مِن فَضْلِهِ لَنَصَّدَّقَنَّ وَلَنَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الصَّالِحِينَ فَلَمَّا آتَاهُم مِّن فَضْلِهِ بَخِلُواْ بِهِ وَتَوَلَّواْ وَّهُم مُّعْرِضُونَ فَأَعْقَبَهُمْ نِفَاقًا فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ إِلَى يَوْمِ يَلْقَوْنَهُ بِمَا أَخْلَفُواْ اللّهَ مَا وَعَدُوهُ وَبِمَا كَانُواْ يَكْذِبُونَ

‘And there are those of them who made a covenant with Allah: If He give us out of His grace, we will certainly give alms and we will certainly be of the good. But when He gave them out of His grace, they became niggardly of it and they turned back and they withdrew. So He made hypocrisy to follow as a consequence into their hearts till the day when they shall meet Him because they failed to perform towards Allah what they had promised with Him and because they told lies.’
(Surah Taubah, 9:75-77)

… يَقُوْلُوْنَ بِاَلْسِنَتِهِمْ مَّا لَيْسَ فِىْ قُلُوْبِهِمْ، …

‘… They say with their tongues what is not in their hearts.
(Surah Fath, 48:11)

Is the view that the Companions are Impeccable based on Intellect (Aql)?

To accept the impeccability of the companions is not based on intellect. How is it possible to accept that a person who committed sins before accepting Islam and in fact fought against the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) becomes infallible after accepting Islam? It’s inconceivable that just by saying a few sentences and staying for a few days with the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) a person acquires an unblemished personality, keeping away from sins and acting on all the teachings of Islam.

We are not denying those truthful Muslims who were trained and guided by the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.), and who became real Muslims and Believers.

To consider all the companions as equal is against intellect. One who can distinguish between good and evil will find it amazing that a person has become impeccable just by seeing the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.); even though he might have disobeyed Allah and the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) and has become eligible for the curse of Allah and the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.).

To consider the character of the companions flawless is also against the Quran and the traditions. There have been companions who were fit for the curse of Allah and the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) because of their actions which were in clear contrast to the Holy Quran and the traditions of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.).

Shia Viewpoint

Shias hold in high esteem those companions who have been praised by Allah and the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.). At the same time, Shias consider those companions who have been condemned and cursed by Allah and the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) to be eligible for curse.

Shias believe that none — man or woman, Arab or non-Arab, companion or companion’s companion, and in fact even those who will be coming to this world at a later time — are an exception to the laws of Allah. Whoever disobeys the laws of Allah or mocks them will see himself far from Allah’s mercy. There are some people, who due to their deeds, have made themselves eligible for the curse of Allah, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.), the angels, the believers and all the people.

Shias do not consider everyone eligible for the curse; only those people who have been cursed by Allah, His Messenger (s.a.w.a.) and the Infallible Imams (a.s.).

History is witness to companions who have been cursed by the Holy Quran because of their deeds and conduct. It is as per the dictates of intellect that weak and baseless justifications cannot protect the accursed because all justifications and rationalizations before the Holy Quran and traditions are unfounded.